Wylie:Sgrub brgyud shing rta chen po brgyad kyi smin grol snying po phyogs gcig bsdus pa gdams ngag rin po che'i mdzod kyi dkar chag bkra shis grags pa'i rgya mtsho
གདམས་ངག་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་མཛོད་ཀྱི་དཀར་ཆག་ ་ ་ ་
sgrub brgyud shing rta chen po brgyad kyi smin grol snying po phyogs gcig bsdus pa gdams ngag rin po che'i mdzod kyi dkar chag bkra shis grags pa'i rgya mtsho
An Ocean of Auspicious Renown: The Catalog of The Treasury of Precious Instructions
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An Ocean of Auspicious Renown: The Catalog of The Treasury of Precious Instructions
[1b] I pay homage to, and take refuge in, the glorious, holy masters—my primary gurus and those of the lineages. Embodiment of timeless awareness, with consummate mastery of the noble state of wisdom, utterly transcending the limitations of conditioned existence and mere quiescence; immutable enlightened speech, amassing the clouds of sambhogakāya through unconditional love to let fall a rain of nirmāṇakāya emanations; enlightened mind, profound and lucid, emerging victorious in the battle with samsara through nonconceptual power, and cutting through the bonds of dualistic fixation: I bow to the guru, Vajrasattva in actuality—sovereign lord of the hundred families of inconceivable secrets. Foundation from which emerges the entire vast range of mandalas without exception, actuality of evaṃ and source of mantra and tantra— since the sublime secret delights in the dance of supreme bliss, you who create and enjoy the display, together with those in the lineages, grant us your blessings! Like the splendor shining from the sun that gives us the day, whatever is excellent in the realms of conditioned existence and the peace of nirvana all comes always from the three precious Jewels, Homage and so I revere them as my refuge, with faith born of informed appreciation. Through the inconceivable enlightened activities of the learned and accomplished, the teachings based on scripture and realization spread completely in the holy country and in Tibet; I offer the flower of praise, extolling the life examples of those in the great mainstream lineages of sutra and tantra who spread those teachings. [2a] Peaceful and passionate and blazing with intense wrath, a single reality with numerous expressions, guiding those difficult to guide— O chosen deities, engaging in the dance of innate compassion, grant us the attainments that bring our wished-for goals to consummation. Moving through the space of timeless awareness, delineating right from wrong, O ḍākinīs of the three places, O oath-bound guardians and dharmapālas, be heedful of our exacting pledge and determine the circumstances for lenience: annihilate what causes hindrances and nurture the fortunate! Renowned throughout the Land of Snows are the eight great mainstream lineages of accomplishment and those who followed them; I open here the great gateway to a marvelous treasury, never before seen, in which the riches of all manner of profound instructions are included in their entirety. The great Treasury of Precious Instructions (gDams ngag rin po che’i mdzod) gathers together in a single collection countless profound means of accomplishment that constitute the distilled essence of all the sacred Dharma, the teachings of the buddhas: the means that include, in their entirety, all the limitless stages for practically applying the profound import found in the sutras and tantras; that are easy to implement yet accommodate the minds of those of the three degrees of acumen (excellent, middling, and lesser); and that swiftly bring the state of supreme enlightenment into full evidence. There are five major topics in my concise catalog of this collection: (1) the purpose of compiling this great collection [2b]; (2) the processes by which these traditions developed in India and Tibet; (3) an identification of what these teachings constitute in their essence; (4) an enumeration of the teachings contained in the collection; and (5) a discussion of the lineage successions through which these teachings have been transmitted.
This discussion has four topics: the goal to be accomplished, the means by which it is accomplished, how one engages in such means, and the purpose of such accomplishment (as well as the benefits and advantages). A. Goal At a certain point during this fortunate aeon of illumination, from among all those victorious ones who will eventually have appeared as suns shining in this world, there appeared the incomparable Lord of the Śākyas—our teacher imbued with supreme compassion, whose armor of motivation is far superior to others’; who is more superb than all the others who liberate those to be guided who were and are not yet liberated in these times of strife; the mere hearing of whose name frees one from the effects of harmful actions reinforced through eighty thousand great aeons; and who is endowed with the aspiration to guide all beings along the path to enlightenment without regression. It is the precious teachings of this buddha that are still alive and enduring. From among the teachings of all these buddhas of the three times, Śākyamuni especially caused the illumination of the teachings of the secret mantra approach, the Vajrayāna, both the general and the specific, to spread—teachings that appear as rarely as the udumvara flower. Due to a very powerful reinforcement of positive forces in many previous lifetimes, and not just to random chance, those who have attained an unflawed, noble working basis of freedom and opportunity 3 and who have the good fortune to enter through the doorway of the Victorious One’s teachings have gained something that is just within the realm of possibility, like a pauper who dreams of finding a wish-fulfilling gem. At this point, in order to ensure certain benefit on a vast scale for themselves and others, they must definitely strive for, and attain, that unique enlightened dimension (kāya) of timeless awareness that constitutes the inseparability of bliss and emptiness, the consummate state of supreme enlightenment that is not confined to either of two extremes. 4 One might wonder, What does this constitute? Timeless awareness is the quasi-subjective perceiver, the facet of what is ultimately true—supreme and utterly unchanging bliss—which is the totally perfect state of utter lucidity. Emptiness endowed with the sublime capacity to manifest in all ways is the quasi-object, what is relatively true, the dimension of illusion in which suchness arises in any and all ways as what is knowable. [3a] The oneness of these as equal in taste, not subject to any division, is spoken of in Mañjuśrī: Web of Magical Illusion: buddhahood without beginning, without end; original buddhahood, undifferentiated . . . 6 This is a reference to the state of primordial unity that requires no more training, the enlightened dimension of innate timeless awareness, the state of the primordial lord protector, the supreme Vajradhara. This goes by limitless varieties of names and embodiments—Kālacakra, Vajrasattva, Guhyasamāja, Cakrasaṃvara, Hevajra, and so forth. It is endowed with four aspects of transcendent perfection: • the transcendent perfection of sacred immaculacy, in that it does not serve as a basis for the continuation of habitual patterns; • the transcendent perfection of sacred presence in the ultimate sense, in that it constitutes the complete subsidence of all elaborations of identity or lack thereof; • the transcendent perfection of sacred bliss, in that it is not subject to any extraneous force but is the nondual perception of all that is knowable, in which any embodiment based on the nature of ordinary mind is eliminated and in which the habitual patterns of the nonrecognition of pure awareness are absent; and • the transcendent perfection of sacred constancy, in that, for as long as space itself endures, from the original moment of omniscient awareness onward there is no difference in its manifestation at earlier and later points in linear time. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 8 3/18/13 3:55 PM Purpose 9 It is endowed with three aspects of supremacy: • a supreme state of elimination, in that all limitless aspects of adventitious distortion—the three levels of obscuration, 8 together with the habitual patterns they entail—have been eliminated; • a supreme state of realization, in that there is realization (requiring no deliberate examination) of knowable phenomena without exception, as being similar to the images in a diviner’s mirror, an illusion, and so forth; and • a supreme state of mind, in that there is constant awareness, without any interruption, that permeates any and all ordinary beings, without any discrimination between near and far, ensuring the benefit of limitless beings for as long as space itself endures. In accord with the reference to buddhahood embodying the five kāyas; sovereign lord embodying the five aspects of timeless awareness . . .9 it is that embodiment of the primordial unity of the five kāyas and the five aspects of timeless awareness for which alone one should strive and of which one should gain accomplishment. If one gains accomplishment of such a state of the supreme seal (mahāmudrā), the most sublime fruition state, through one’s higher altruistic motivation, enthusiastic diligence, and stable fortitude, it is in the nature of things that all attainments—the four kinds of enlightened activity, 10 the ten powers, 11 and so forth—come about in an effortless and spontaneous manner, just as a fine harvest of grain results in chaff and straw as a matter of course. 12 [3b] B. Means of Accomplishment On what means, or path, does one rely in order to accomplish such a superior goal? As is said: The sacred Dharma is that which dispels all suffering and all obscurations. That is, one should enter through the doorway of the precious teachings Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 9 3/18/13 3:55 PM 10 The Catalog that are still present without having waned—those of the three turnings of the wheel of Dharma by the omniscient Victorious One, who conferred these through the three kinds of miracles 13—and, having entered, one should gain accomplishment by incorporating these teachings into one’s experience. In particular, it is not possible to gain accomplishment of the sublimely unchanging state of primordial unity through any means other than by relying entirely on the unsurpassable swift path of the Vajrayāna. The sacred Dharma subsumes the three higher trainings as its subject matter and the Three Collections as the presentations thereof. 14 If these are to be summarized, we may cite the master Vasubandhu: The sacred teachings of the Teacher are twofold, embodying scripture and realization. 15 They thus can be subsumed under the two headings of scripture and realization. Of these, the aspect of the Dharma as scripture is described in the Highest Continuum: The Dharma is that which is free of and brings freedom from attachment and is endowed with the characteristics of the two levels of truth. Freedom from attachment is subsumed within the truths of cessation and the path. 16 As this passage notes, that which is free of attachment is the truth of cessation, while that which brings freedom from attachment is the truth of the spiritual path. Of these, the truth of cessation is characterized as any context that, due to a focus on suchness itself, entails the cessation of anything associated with corruptibility 17—that is to say, the states of elimination on the paths of training and no more training, the state of nirvana that involves no residual traces, 18 and the dharmakāya of buddhahood as defined in the Mahāyāna approach. This is also referred to as the fruition state—the transcendence of sorrow (which is to say, suffering and the causes thereof) 19—imbued with the seven attributes of peace and negating the four kinds of impermanence. The truth of the path is characterized as the means by which that cessation is made fully evident, which constitutes incorruptible timeless awareness and its attendant factors—[4a] that is, the three paths of seeing, meditation, and no more training or (in the Mahāyāna context) the two paths of seeing and meditation. The attendant factors are the two paths of accumulation and linkage. 20 The aspect of the Dharma as scripture is characterized as the descriptions that allow one to gain access to the aspect of Dharma as realization—that is, the twelve branches of the Buddha’s excellent speech, 21 which are appropriate causes that bring about realization of the true nature of reality. In this regard, there are also the two aspects of the Dharma as it is practiced and the Dharma as it is explained. Of these, the former is endowed with four excellent qualities that allow the fruition state to be attained. These four excellent qualities are as follows: • It does not entail any factors of compulsion or perpetuation, for it leads to the citadel of nirvana and does not lead to that of samsara. • It is uninterrupted, for it connects one to nirvana without obstacles and with a continuity that is unchanging. • It causes no harm, for it is not affected by the thieving effects of desire and attachment and so forth. • It reveals itself in an intimate way, for it is fueled by the food of one’s delight in the Dharma. As for the Dharma as it is explained, it is endowed with four functions that elucidate the factors of the spiritual path, for it demonstrates • what is attended to (“This is the path”); • what brings certainty about this (“This is indeed the path, while anything else is not”); • what elucidates the requirements for this (“These factors, such as the four applications of mindfulness, are the causes of the path”); and • the utter pacification of obscurations (“The obscurations of karma, afflictive states, and obstacles to longevity cause hindrances on the path”). Concerning the Dharma as it is explained, a text states: All the teachings of Dharma are subsumed in two categories, the Buddha’s words and the treatises— respectively, what was spoken in an excellent manner and the commentaries on the intent of that. Due to the power of these, the teachings of Śākyamuni will endure for a long time in this world.22 This is a reference to the two divisions of (1) what was “spoken in an excellent manner” in some ten ways23 and (2) the treatises that comment on the enlightened intent of the former. 1. The Buddha’s Words As for the first of these divisions, the Buddha’s words are concerned with both what is forever meaningful in the greatest sense and what is connected to the accomplishment of that meaning. Their function is to eliminate all the limitless afflictive mental states associated with the three realms of existence. They set forth the benefits and advantages of the fruition state of peace—that is, nirvana, the transcendence of sorrow. [4b] They derive from the enlightened deeds of buddhahood as their governing condition.24 They may be classified as follows:25 • According to the chronological order in which the Buddha spoke them, there are three cycles: the initial, the intermediate, and the final.26 • From the perspective of their subject matter, they concern the two levels of truth.27 • From that of their presentation, there are the twelve branches of the Buddha’s sublime speech. • In accord with the categories that are associated with the antidotes they discuss—that is, the factors to be eliminated, those to be adopted, and those to be understood—there are the Three Collections.28 • From the perspective of the greater or lesser capacity of those who are to be guided by these teachings, there are the two approaches of the Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna, the latter further consisting of the dialectical approach (in which the path is based on causes) and the mantra approach (in which the path is based on the fruition). • Again from the point of view of the governing conditions, there are the words of the Buddha that were communicated directly, those that came about through blessings, and those that came about through permission being granted.29 Given the foregoing categories, in this great Treasury are found teachings that cover the entire meaning of what is to be put into practice according to Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 12 3/18/13 3:55 PM Purpose 13 all three cycles of teachings, with emphasis on the ultimate level of truth, a focus on the category of the most extensive teachings, and a presentation most especially of the higher trainings in mind30 and meditative absorption. They explain solely the Mahāyāna, particularly the Mantrayāna approach within that, and are based on vajra verses and other such sources that were communicated directly. 2. The Commentarial Treatises As for the treatises, the authors were those whose minds were undistracted by afflictive mental states and who explained the meaning of the Buddha’s teaching according to its vastness and profundity, so that their writings were in accord with the path that brings about the attainment of liberation. These treatises correct the ongoing experience of those who hear their teachings, turning them away from the three mental poisons and imbuing them with the three higher trainings, thus protecting them from lower states of rebirth and the suffering of conditioned existence.31 While there are many ways to categorize such treatises, they are described in the Categories of the Levels in nine ways according to superior and inferior kinds of writings: Buddhist śāstras are held to be devoid of these six flaws and to have these three positive qualities.32 That is to say, they are devoid of six flaws found in inferior kinds of treatises, instead being endowed with meaning, being concerned with the elimination of suffering, and placing great emphasis on spiritual practice. It is with these three kinds of sublime and authentic treatises that this Treasury is filled. In particular, the Mantrayāna approach was taught by the sambhogakāya, endowed with the seven attributes of integration33 or (in certain cases) the sublime nirmāṇakāya.34 In a few cases, teachings came about through blessings or through permission being granted. [5a] In such ways the wheel of Dharma was turned uninterruptedly for those to be guided—masters of awareness and hosts of ḍākas and yoginīs—in places that appeared to be different, through the echolike quality of all sound in its ineffable nature. In the case of the anuttarayoga tantras, these were taught in an environment that transcends the scope of ordinary conceptual frameworks and characteristics: the “basic space of phenomena,” the “unchanging ultimate Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 13 3/18/13 3:55 PM 14 The Catalog abode,” the “source of phenomena,” the “palace of supreme liberation,” the “immeasurable mansion of supreme and inconceivable bliss,” the “bhaga of the Vajra Queen,” and so forth. According to more relative interpretations, some were taught in such locations as Akaniṣṭha,35 Tuṣita,36 the summit of Sumeru, and the stupa of Śrīdhānyakaṭaka.37 In these environments the original buddha arose in the form of the central deity of a specific mandala—as Vajradhara, Kālacakra, and so forth—so that the natural dynamic expression of timeless awareness was that of the inseparability of teacher and retinue in the nature of being as the single state of supreme bliss. This caused the turning of the wheel of Dharma to manifest within that context as a constant process without interruption through the supreme secret of the indestructible resonance of vajra sound. These teachings were collected by Guhyapati,38 Vajragarbha, and others of the retinues (though in no way other than the teachers), so that at least a portion of them became accessible to fortunate people in the human realm. This entire vast range of the classes of tantra was elucidated in commentaries authored by powerful lords of the tenth level of realization and accomplished masters, and in the holy country of India and other regions many people of the highest acumen pursued the practice of these teachings and gained high levels of accomplishment, in turn conferring the profound meaning of the classes of tantra as advice to fortunate individuals who were to be guided. These instructions were transmitted from sublime incarnate scholars and translators over successive generations, so that they came to this land39 at the invitation of our merit. In the land of Tibet, furthermore, there were great and holy beings who were exemplars of the excellent speech of the Victorious One and who had perceived the true nature of reality just as it is. This great Treasury brings together in a single collection much wealth that constitutes the precious and profound instructions from the majority of the most famous of these masters. In the case of the Early Translation school of the Nyingma tradition in particular, there are three lineages: • the lineage of the mind-to-mind transmission by victorious ones, in which the timeless awareness of the three kāyas of the teacher arises as its own natural manifestation; [5b] • the lineage of transmission through symbols by masters of awareness (Garap Dorje, the five exalted masters of holy heritage, and others), in which the entire meaning of the teachings was completely absorbed simply through the use of something symbolic; and Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 14 3/18/13 3:55 PM Purpose 15 • the lineage of oral transmission by human individuals, in which teachings were transmitted through speech from one person to the ear of another, in cases such as that of the king Jaḥ. Due to the uninterrupted transmission through these three lineages, this collection contains the quintessence of the profound meaning found in the instructions of the categories of Mind, Expanse, and Direct Transmission in the ati approach (the pinnacle of the three great approaches based on skillful method that bring mastery),40 as well as such texts as the instruction manual for the Vajrasattva cycle Web of Magical Display from the mahāyoga approach. Concerning such precious teachings, the master Vasubandhu stated: It is this and this alone that is to be upheld, discussed, and put into practice.41 That is to say, those aspects of the sacred Dharma that constitute the scriptural tradition must be upheld through the activities of explaining, listening to, studying, and contemplating them; while those aspects of the sacred Dharma that constitute the experientially based tradition must be upheld through applying training in one’s ongoing experience, practicing and meditating on their meaning. In the holy country of India, it was the great monastic communities and such figures as the “six ornaments who adorn the human world,”42 the “four great ones,” the “two superb masters,”43 the “six learned gatekeepers,” and the successive abbots of Vajrāsana, who primarily guarded the scriptural tradition through the three activities of explaining teachings, debating, and composing commentaries. And it was the countless masters who appeared—as exemplified by the eighty-four mahāsiddhās, such as the venerable master Paramaśva; the Great Brahmin and his spiritual son; the three masters Lūipāda, Ghaṇṭapāda, and Kṛṣṇapāda; Kālacakrapāda the Elder and Younger; and Tilopa44—who primarily upheld the experientially based tradition through spiritual practice. In this land of Tibet, moreover, the teachings of the Victorious One were guarded by the ten great pillars upholding the lineages of exegesis45 emphasizing the profound path of the theoretical underpinnings of the teachings, and those who held the lineages of the eight great mainstream lineages of accomplishment emphasizing that of the practical application. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 15 3/18/13 3:55 PM 16 The Catalog C. Method of Practice In general, let us consider the case of any individuals who have experienced a sense of disenchantment with the sufferings of samsara and who seek liberation from these as their goal, following the precious teachings of the Buddha and pursuing the stages of practice of the sacred Dharma.[6a] At the outset, they must rely on a mentor, who is the foundation of the spiritual path. According to the Compendium:46 “The teachings of the Buddhadharma depend on spiritual mentors”: the Victorious One spoke of them as being endowed with the most sublime of all qualities. This and other sources refer to the qualifications of a master, a spiritual mentor who is validated as such through countless reasons supported by both scripture and reasoning. There are so many such qualifications, depending on the specific contexts of higher and lower approaches, that it would be difficult to reach a point where they had been explained adequately. However, the factors that are indispensable are three: (1) intelligence based on wisdom, (2) an attitude of loving-kindness, and (3) forbearance in one’s actions. That is to say: 1. The qualities of wisdom are those of one being learned concerning the words of the teachings to be explained and the meaning of those words, being able to resolve others’ doubts, presenting one’s discussions in an elegant fashion, being worthy of honor due to one’s virtuous conduct, and being wise concerning the appropriate conduct or the qualifications of the recipients of teachings. 2. Ideally, one would have compassion that is not mere lip service but constitutes the desire to bring all ordinary beings to the state of supreme enlightenment. On a middling level, one would have the altruistic attitude of wishing to bring those who are guided by one’s teachings to the level of buddhahood. At the very least, one must definitely have the compassion to explain the teachings without regard for material gain, but with the intention that constitutes the desire that others who receive the teachings understand the meaning of what is explained precisely and benefit thereby; for without the latter one will commit the flaw of selling the Dharma. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 16 3/18/13 3:55 PM Purpose 17 3. As well, one must certainly have the forbearance not to be discouraged by difficulties encountered when explaining the teachings, the forbearance to entertain questions from students, and the forbearance to be challenged by others and be able to answer their objections. In this collection, The Treasury of Precious Instructions, with the foregoing being taken to be the minimum requirements, one must in addition be engaged in the three levels of ordination, understand the words and meanings of the teachings to be explained, and have undertaken practice of the main points of the instructions concerned, so that one has gained some degree of personal experience. Although there are many discussions of the characteristics of a student, principally this should be someone who does not rely on fame and profit in this lifetime, is not competitive with others, and is not simply interested in “collecting” teachings by requesting and receiving anything and everything. Rather, he or she should be someone who strives wholeheartedly for liberation, whose mind is stable in the three aspects of faith that are the foundation of all positive factors, [6b] and who puts into practice the teachings he or she has heard as much as possible in accord with his or her level of understanding. Once the interdependence between mentor and student has been established, the latter relies on the former in the appropriate manner, pleasing the teacher to whichever of the three degrees one is capable of ensuring. Then, as the Treasury of Abhidharma states: Maintaining discipline and endowed with study and contemplation, one applies oneself intensively to meditation.47 That is to say, as a basis for the development of positive qualities, one accepts whatever level of training in ethical discipline one is capable of and upholds that in the appropriate manner. It is of course the case that the more one can study the excellent teachings of the Victorious One, the better. But in particular one should study in detail the stages on the paths of the three spiritual models, which are an infallible path to integrate one’s mind with the sacred Dharma, one that involves no regression. If the meaning of what one has heard is merely left as a superficial understanding based on a single exposure, it will have no impact on one’s ongoing experience, so investigate it in detail, reflecting on it over and over. This will ensure that one’s fixation on the perceptions and consciousness associated with this lifetime will be undermined on a deep level, giving rise to a truly Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 17 3/18/13 3:55 PM 18 The Catalog extraordinary intention to strive for the definitive excellence of enlightenment in the future. All this being the case, if we examine the majority of activities in which we ourselves and others engage, presumptuously assuming these to be spiritual practice, they prove to be cases of dharma as theory, dharma as a means of livelihood, dharma as a hobby, dharma as a way of decorating one’s life. Know that these not only are of no benefit for our future lifetimes, they can even cause harm. This will arouse a sense of enthusiasm to pursue meditation and spiritual practice of dharma in the true sense. As the exalted Nāgārjuna says: Hearing teachings is what causes one’s intelligence to expand; if one also contemplates, with both of these factors one can then apply oneself intensively to meditation. Unsurpassable attainment comes from that. Generally speaking, there are two kinds of individuals who apply themselves to spiritual practice that focuses on what is profoundly meaningful. For those fortunate ones who have already trained, it is appropriate to teach the profound path all at once. Those who lack the good fortune to practice focusing on the profound meaning at the outset, or those who are beginning practitioners, should proceed like someone climbing a flight of stairs, so it would be best to instruct them in the stages of the paths of the three spiritual models. In Lamp That Integrates Conduct we read the following: In order for ordinary beings who are beginning practitioners [7a] to embrace what is ultimately meaningful, these means were classified by the perfect Buddha like successive steps in a flight of stairs. And according to the Two Sections, in consideration of those who are lacking in good fortune and difficult to guide: At the outset, confer the ordination for spiritual renewal and training. In such sources, there are extensive treatments of this developmental process of engagement. In addition, as is stated in the earlier and later editions of the Primer: Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 18 3/18/13 3:55 PM Purpose 19 The greatest medicine for one who proceeds in stages would be poison for one who proceeds all at once. The greatest medicine for one who proceeds all at once would be poison for one who proceeds in stages. Therefore, for those with the carryover from previous training, one should present the mode to proceed all at once. For beings who are beginning practitioners, one should present the mode to proceed by stages. With respect to one’s receiving the transmissions of this collection, The Treasury of Precious Instructions, in general each of the traditions of the eight mainstream lineages of accomplishment is, in and of itself, a special and profound path and the complete range of stages in the attainment of enlightenment. Thus, in accord with each person’s interest and mental ability, whatever one might desire in the way of instruction is available in each of these traditions, whether the complete transmission or selected stages. And so this collection is entirely sufficient, even though the maturing empowerments and liberating instructions constitute extractions from these traditions. And although in the case of major systems of instructions there is no way that these can be imparted before the maturing process of empowerment has taken place, one should make the distinction that in certain cases—such as teachings on the graduated path and minor instructions—the conferral of an empowerment is not necessary. On occasions when the entire collection is being transmitted and received, the way the volumes are organized is chronological, according to the earlier and later historical periods during which these profound teachings came to Tibet. But when the transmission is being given, it must be in accord with the developmental stages of the teachings, and so the transmission begins with the Kadampa teachings on the graduated path. Following the completion of the Dorje Sumgyi Nyendrup teachings, the maturing empowerments and liberating instructions for the three categories of the Great Perfection approach are conferred. Other, more minor instructions are transmitted intermittently where convenient. It would be excellent if the instructions on longevity practice were used to bring everything to a positive conclusion. In this regard, if there are students who are householders and, as such, hold no ordination, some form of ordination from the Individual Liberation system—such as lay ordination, or whatever they are capable of upholding— is conferred. [7b] As the initial part of the instruction in the superior spiritual model, the ordination ceremony for arousing bodhicitta is performed, Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 19 3/18/13 3:55 PM 20 The Catalog from both the lineage of profound view and that of extensive conduct. As a preliminary to each of the major systems of instruction, the empowerment is conferred in accord with the respective tradition’s way of carrying this out. Instructions that require a specific number of days, such as that of Parting from the Four Attachments, are transmitted in that way. The 108 Instructions of Jetsun Kunga Drolchok48 must be taken as the foundation of the entire collection in general, and so before any of these transmissions the preliminary practices of these instructions and the meditation and mantra repetition of Samayavajra are explained, and during the evening session everyone participates in that meditation and mantra. For the actual transmissions, it is my lord guru’s method to confer them each in three versions: a brief presentation, an extensive explanation, and a concluding summary. So, the lineage supplication is recited at the outset in each case, the history of the specific instruction is related, and a mandala offering is performed. The teachings that are contained in the 108 Instructions are identified separately and read once, which constitutes the brief presentation. Next, the source text of the respective instruction is explained extensively. Then the 108 Instructions are transmitted once again as a series, which constitutes the concluding summary. But in fact the order in which these are given need not necessarily be the one that is found in the text of the 108 Instructions. This can be illustrated by the fact that it would be, for example, fine to confer, in conjunction with the teachings on the graduated path, those instructions that are akin to those teachings, or the instructions on the view of the Middle Way. So the instructions that pertain to the sutra tradition can be given in conjunction with the teachings on the graduated path; those that pertain to specific mainstream traditions can be added to the transmissions of those respective traditions. As for those instructions on the stage of completion for the classes of tantra that are not included in the foregoing case, it would be fine to give them in conjunction with the Kagyu transmissions. As this indicates, one can include within the transmission of a given lineage any instructions that share some affinity with the authentic origins of that lineage, in whatever way is convenient. Once the instructions have been transmitted in their entirety, it would be ideal if one were to add the reading transmission for the text of the 108 Instructions. As is stated in the sutra White Lotus of the Sacred Dharma, in any situation in which teachings are being transmitted and received, the preparation involves arranging offerings on the shrine, offering prayers of supplication to the Jewels, repeating mantras to put an end to negative influences, and imbuing oneself with love for the audience. Especially in cases of transmitInterior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 20 3/18/13 3:55 PM Purpose 21 ting tantric instructions, when they are being explained it is unsuitable to transmit or receive them with ordinary ideas, so one should never lose the clear impression of the universe being a pure mandala, of the one explaining the teachings being a master of the tantras, and so forth. [8a] During the actual transmission, one explains the teaching while embodying the six transcendent perfections. In conclusion, one prays for forgiveness of one’s errors, dedicates the virtue to the enlightenment of all, and applies the perspective of a nonconceptual state of awareness. Those hearing the teachings avoid the three flaws of a vessel, the six distortions, anything inappropriate to the activity at hand, the five flaws of incorrect retention, and so forth. With the intelligence that allows one to gain understanding, the determination to seek teachings, devotion that is devoid of pride, and one-pointed faith, they prepare by imbuing themselves with the intention to practice the teachings, engaging in conduct that expresses devotion through the three avenues of their being, and taking joy in ensuring the circumstances for them to hear the Dharma. During the actual transmission, they listen while embodying the six transcendent perfections. In conclusion, they pray for forgiveness of their errors, dedicate the virtue to the enlightenment of all, and pay homage as a thanksgiving gesture. One should act in accord with the foregoing explanations. D. Purpose of Compiling The Treasury of Precious Instructions This is twofold: the actual purpose of compiling this collection and the benefits and advantages of doing so. 1. The Actual Purpose Generally speaking, in each of the eight great mainstream lineages of accomplishment there exists such a profound and vast range of authentic sources from the sutra and tantra traditions, and such limitless cycles of scriptures and pith instructions, that no one could compile everything. And in such cases as that of the Early Translation school (with the empowerments for the peaceful and wrathful deities and the explanations of the tantra Web of Magical Display, which is the foundation of the mahāyoga approach, and the empowerment for the Discourse of the Gathering of the anuyoga approach); of the six main scriptural sources of the Kadampa; of the “explanation to the multitude” from the Lamdre tradition; and of the teachings on Mahāmudrā and the Six Dharmas from the Dakpo tradition—in such cases, even nowInterior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 21 3/18/13 3:55 PM 22 The Catalog adays the institutions for the transmitting and receiving of these teachings that are entirely self-sufficient are widespread and flourishing, so that one certainly need have no concern for these traditions. There are, however, special auxiliary teachings in the foregoing traditions—instructions and ancient texts—that are rare, with barely a continuous line of the reading transmission still extant, as well as the traditions of the Shangpa, the Zhije, the Nyendrup, and so forth, in which the lines of transmission are exceedingly rare and in danger of dying out. With an altruistic desire to benefit these lines of teachings and with great diligence, I have sought out the three components of empowerments, reading transmissions, and instructions for them and compiled them so that all this will prove to be of use. As well, in the foregoing cases I have not had to rely solely on extensive lineages that are like rotting strands of old rope on the point of breaking. My lord guru, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, received seven great modes of personal transmission. [8b] The first of these modes involved him making enormous efforts to receive the extensive transmissions of the eight great mainstream lineages of accomplishment, which he did to a consummate degree; the accounts of how he received individual direct lineages through these modes of transmission are clearly described in a separate text. I supplicated him again and again concerning all the transmissions I had not received previously, and with great delight he bestowed these on me like one vase filling another. And that was not all, for he did me the great honor of granting me a quite extraordinary authorization, formally appointing me as a master who could explain, write about, and practice these teachings. Even regarding most of the transmissions that I had previously received, I nevertheless persistently requested these from him for the purpose of receiving them as direct lineages of his blessings. So my own enthusiasm for assembling this great collection of advice—which is like a wish-fulfilling gem, flawless and yielding all that is desirable just as one wishes—has been firmly rooted in me, and I feel this is also a way of fulfilling the enlightened intentions of my gurus and those of the lineages involved. 2. The Benefits and Advantages Let me speak briefly about the benefits and advantages of this undertaking. Generally speaking, there are enormous benefits and advantages to listening to or explaining the sacred Dharma. As we read in the compilation of teachings on the bodhisattva approach: Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 22 3/18/13 3:55 PM Purpose 23 Through hearing teachings, one comes to understand phenomena. Through hearing teachings, one turns away from harmful actions. Through hearing teachings, one abstains from what is meaningless. Through hearing teachings, one attains nirvana. As well, the master Vasubandhu illustrated the benefits and advantages of hearing teachings in three groups of five points, employing analogies. There are a great many such benefits and advantages to hearing teachings. As for the benefits and advantages of explaining teachings, in the sutras we read the following: One who, in order to benefit someone, presents my teachings in the appropriate manner shows me honor; the Victorious One is not shown honor with flowers, perfumes, or lamps. Such passages show that this is the unsurpassable offering one can make to the Buddha. Further, the sutra Maitreya, the Lion’s Roar states: Some may fill the world with as much gold as there are grains of sand in the Ganges and give it generously, but to speak a single verse of teachings in these evil times holds so much more benefit than that. This and other sources indicate that explaining the teachings is far superior to any other generosity on the material level, and thus it is of the most sublime benefit. Through generosity of the dharma, one recalls former lifetimes. [9a] Such citations state that explaining the teachings serves as a cause for gaining the powers of complete recall and deeper discernment. The sutra Discourse That Arouses Altruistic Intent discusses some twenty benefits and advantages to being generous with the dharma without regard for material gain; as this indicates, one’s merit thus flourishes and one will attain enlightenment. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 23 3/18/13 3:55 PM 24 The Catalog Both explaining and listening to teachings stabilize the spiritual potential of those in the three approaches, bring one erudition that others respect, uphold the teachings, and bring about the attainment of enlightenment—the benefits and advantages are truly inconceivable! The Demonstration of the Secret of the Tathāgatas states: As for the merit of upholding the sacred Dharma, even if all buddhas spoke continuously about this for a million aeons, they would indeed never describe it entirely. And in the sutra Discourse Requested by Sagaramati we read: To uphold the sacred Dharma of the tathāgatas is to be completely upheld by the victorious ones; it is to be completely cared for by gods, nāgas, and kiṃnaras and completely imbued with merit and timeless awareness. . . . through joy and mental bliss one becomes enlightened, awakening to buddhahood. These and other such sources speak of immeasurable benefits and advantages. The benefits and advantages of explaining or listening to the dharma of the Mahāyāna approach are even greater still. In the context of the ground state, the Prajñāpāramitā literature speaks of these activities outshining all that pertains to the Hīnayāna approach, nurturing the potential that is the fundamental constituent of our being, and so forth. In the context of the spiritual path, the Highest Continuum speaks of them eliminating all obscurations without exception and ensuring merit far greater than any other activity. And in the context of the fruition state, the Ornament of the Mahāyāna Sutras explains that they make evident the state of omniscience. In particular, it is said that there are immeasurable benefits and advantages to upholding the sacred Dharma in such times as the present day, when the teachings of the Victorious One are close to disappearing. To cite from the sutra Discourse of the One Known as the Exalted Avalokiteśvara: Those who henceforth uphold this sutra will forever be my beloved children. Although a million buddhas praise them, [9b] Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 24 3/18/13 3:55 PM Purpose 25 they will never be finished with that praise. . . . More than those who show honor to thousands of buddhas (or even to hundreds of millions) for as many aeons as there are grains of sand in the Ganges, someone who, when the sacred Dharma spoken by the Lord of the World is disappearing, upholds it day and night has far greater merit. . . . By upholding the Dharma of the sublime Victorious One when it is disappearing, one gains a very fine body, lovely to behold; is beloved of men and women and gods; and is happy, learned, praiseworthy, and possessed of intelligence. In whoever’s presence the divine of the divine, the Teacher endowed with ten powers, thoroughly explained this sutra, such a sutra as this will, in the future, come into that person’s hands. Furthermore, as we read in Spiritual Categories of the Supreme Amassing of the Rare and Sublime: In this regard, Śāriputra, having embarked authentically on the Mahāyāna approach, once one has perceived such intolerable, such unworthy circumstances, under which the sacred Dharma is utterly disappearing, one arouses the force of a great diligence in the following way: One thoroughly listens to sutras such as this one, to teachings in the categories found in the collections of teachings on the bodhisattva approach. One memorizes them, one commits them to writing, one ensures that others understand them, and one teaches them on a vast scale, in an utterly authentic manner. Moreover, one gives rise to four ideas. What are these four? “This body of teachings that I have, which I inherited from my forefathers, will utterly disappear. Since Śākyamuni, the Transcendent and Accomplished Conqueror, the Tathāgata, the arhat, the samyaksaṃbuddha, engaged in austerities for hundreds of thousands of millions of aeons for the sake of these Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 25 3/18/13 3:55 PM 26 The Catalog teachings, therefore I will ensure that the teachings are not altered. I will thoroughly master them. I will uphold them. I will ensure that they do not come to naught!” One thus arouses one’s diligence in the following way: [10a] Śāriputra, say for example that someone had a child, and that child—beloved, lovely, attractive, and in no way at odds with that person—were about to fall over a great precipice. That person would seize the child by the hand with the fixed thought, the utterly fixed thought, “May this being not fall into this hellish abyss!” In a similar manner, Śāriputra, those holy beings who have faith in me, who would absolutely never forsake this unsurpassable Jewel of the Dharma, and who hope to attain nirvana, in those times they completely uphold the sacred Dharma, and so to them I entrust this sublime state of enlightenment. It is thus. O Śāriputra, suppose for example that, in the midst of a great battle, for the sake of protecting many people, those who arrange themselves in front of the opposing forces turn out to be few; and furthermore, that those whose courage proves worthy of the challenge and who will emerge victorious in battle arrange themselves during that great and terrible battle in front of many people. Similarly, Śāriputra, at the point that the sacred Dharma is extremely close to disappearing, whosoever with altruistic intent desires to attain complete nirvana, and so dons their strong armor with stable courage and diligence, arouses the force of that great diligence and emerges victorious in the battle with the māras. They thus realize to at least some small degree the vital essence of such a Jewel as that of the Dharma. Why is this so? Śāriputra, not to rejoice in the complete rejection of even a four-line verse of teaching, but to proclaim to many people “This Buddha explained this” and to help them understand it is to rejoice in what is explained in an excellent manner by the buddhas, the transcendent and accomplished conquerors of the past, the present, and the future. O Śāriputra, I would not say, “The consequences of the merit of such individuals is small.” [10b] Rather, they are endowed with an amassing of merit that is equal to space in its extent. Why is this so? Śāriputra, such holy beings as these are rare. They can be called sublime beings. They can be called ideal beings. They can be called courageous beings. They can be called great beings. They are on the side of the Dharma of the tathāgatas. Do not speak against them or interfere with them. They are to be afforded most special honor. O Śāriputra, until death one should afford them most special honor. Until death one should completely uphold the sacred Dharma. Until death one should have a devoted interest in emptiness. Śāriputra, if one has the four foregoing qualities, at that point, at that time—a time when the sacred Dharma is utterly disappearing, a time when the sacred dharma is on the wane, a time when many pervert the ethical standards, a time when many harken to the furtive words of rank materialists, a time when the age is degenerating, a time when beings are degenerating, a time when longevity is degenerating, a time when afflictive mental states are degenerating, a time when belief systems are degenerating—one should abide in these qualities throughout the three times. One should continue to pacify conflict thoroughly. One should not become separated from the enlightenment of buddhahood. Śāriputra, one should abide completely like this throughout the three times! To quote again from the sutra Discourse Requested by Sagaramati: To uphold the sacred Dharma of the tathāgatas is to repay the kindness shown by the tathāgatas. To uphold the treasury of the victorious ones and be stable in that intent is to make offerings to buddhas in the ten directions. One could fill with jewels many realms seen by the eyes of the buddhas and offer these to the tathāgatas, but at the point that these were exhausted, the amassing of one’s merit would not have increased as it does by one’s upholding the Dharma. . . . Although the qualities and benefits and advantages of these actions might be described by speaking without interruption for an aeon, one could never completely finish describing the benefits and advantages of upholding the sacred Dharma. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 27 3/18/13 3:55 PM 28 The Catalog As these and other passages indicate, this issue is spoken of on a vast scale. [11a] Compared to the foregoing cases, the benefits and advantages of transmitting, receiving, meditating on, and practicing the unsurpassable teachings, both general and specific, of the Vajrayāna, the secret mantra approach, are significantly greater—many hundreds and thousands of times greater. For it is even rarer for the Vajrayāna to appear than for a buddha to do so. It is due only to the strength of our Teacher’s special resolve to guide beings who were not being guided in these times of strife that these teachings appeared. Otherwise, as it is said, they have not appeared, are not appearing, and will not appear in the teachings of all buddhas of the three times. This being the case, it is stated extensively throughout the classes of tantras that, for example, those who write out the profound tantras, or carry them on their person, or read them, and who meditate on their meaning are gazing on the vajra state of enlightenment itself. To give one example, from the tantra Heaped Jewels of the Early Translation school: Therefore, people who uphold this secret tantra gain empowerment into their respective families. Merely by carrying this tantra on one’s person, one becomes an emanation of Vajradhara. All who read this tantra have the entire meaning of the view arise in their minds. All who write it out enjoy the enlightened speech of all buddhas.49 And from the Supreme Array of Ati: If one makes offerings to, praises, and shows honor to this unsurpassable and most excellent secret, both sublime and more ordinary attainments will come to one just as one wishes. By merely carrying it on one’s person, one possesses the oral transmission and pith instructions. And that is not all. To have even the slightest physical contact with advanced practitioners who apply the meaning of the words of the tantras— such as seeing their faces, hearing their speech, or being touched by their Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 28 3/18/13 3:55 PM Purpose 29 hands or feet—purifies one instantly of all the effects of harmful actions amassed in the past, so that before very long one attains the state of a heruka. This situation is discussed in the source tantra of Cakrasaṃvara: Through seeing, touching, hearing, and recalling, one becomes freed of all effects of harmful action, right then and there, without doubt. . . . [11b] The supreme and timeless awareness of the glorious heruka has all the attributes of total purity. It is the water of bliss for the practitioner. Nondual, it is nonduality itself. Contact with one who is engaged in nonduality is purifying, overcoming the effects of harmful actions. Through contact or speech, one becomes free of all effects of harmful actions. With this freedom from all effects of harmful actions, one’s body is pure and without flaw. One is a sublime person who is completely refined. One attains the level of a tathāgata who is completely pure of all effects of harmful actions. Completely free of all effects of harmful actions, one is born into the family of the tathāgatas and becomes a monarch who possesses spiritual values. The reasoning behind these statements is thus: It is said that those yogins who pursue practice are constantly being blessed by the glorious heruka, while all ḍākas and ḍākinīs—such as Heruka and Vajravārāhī—are actually present in their heart centers, engaging passionately in union with them in a state of delight and love. They therefore are born simultaneously with those yogins, so that beings who forge any connection with them—through seeing, hearing, thinking of, or touching them—amass enormous merit thereby. The same source states: There is no doubt that one is constantly engaged in play with the great hero. In the heart center dwells Vārāhī. One abides in union with me and with ḍākas and ḍākinīs and heralds. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 29 3/18/13 3:55 PM 30 The Catalog Beings gain merit by seeing anyone who is truly born with these. Having studied and contemplated any sutra or tantra, in the final analysis one must integrate that by applying oneself to meditation and spiritual practice. For if one becomes distracted by merely talking about the teachings, not only will there be no meaningful result, but as the sutra Discourse Exhorting One to Altruism points out, there are a great many flaws in taking delight in such talk. And if one does not meditate on the authentic nature of reality, even though one were to embrace the teachings of the Buddha and hear and contemplate the sacred Dharma on the level of mere words, no matter how much one did so this would produce only a temporary result; [12a] one would not gain the consummate state of total freedom. This fact is spoken of using numerous analogies as, for example, in the following passage from the Array of Stems: These teachings of the perfect Buddha are not realized through one’s simply hearing them. To give an analogy, in certain cases a mighty river can carry off those who are weak while others die of thirst; the situation is similar when one does not meditate on the Dharma. One might give food and drink to many beings but die of hunger oneself; the situation is similar when one does not meditate on the Dharma. Certain physicians may possess all medicines but still die of some virulent disease; the situation is similar when one does not meditate on the Dharma. In treasure houses of riches there may be great numbers of jewels to be counted but not even a single gem that one may own; the situation is similar when one does not meditate on the Dharma. One might be reborn in the court of a monarch’s palace that is endowed with all pleasures yet not receive food and drink oneself; the situation is similar when one does not meditate on the Dharma. A blind artist, when selling a painting, Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 30 3/18/13 3:55 PM Purpose 31 might be questioned about it but be the one who cannot see it; the situation is similar when one does not meditate on the Dharma. A ferryman might convey many people across a great body of water but still die that night; the situation is similar when one does not meditate on the Dharma. One might stand at the crossroads and proclaim to everyone what is excellent yet still not obtain it oneself; the situation is similar when one does not meditate on the Dharma. In addition, if one does not meditate, one’s mind can fall under the sway of afflictive mental states, and one will fall into a lower state of rebirth, as we read in the sutra Discourse on the Complete Display: If one has not realized the nature of mind, one falls under the influence of the conceptual thought process of ordinary mind and circles through the three realms, wandering into the six states of unenlightened being. In these and other such passages, this point is discussed extensively in the sutras and śāstras. The merit of meditating on the authentic nature of reality, however, is incalculable. According to the sutra Discourse Demonstrating Suchness Itself: [12b] O Śāriputra, greater than the merit of someone who listens to teachings for an entire aeon is that of someone who for the duration of a finger snap cultivates meditative absorption focusing on suchness itself. Given that that is so, Śāriputra, you should strongly advise others about this meditative absorption of suchness itself. And according to the sutra Discourse of the Great Uṣṇiṣa: The merit of meditating for a single day on the significance of the true nature of phenomena is greater than that of hearing and contemplating teachings for many aeons. Why is this so? Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 31 3/18/13 3:55 PM 32 The Catalog Because it ensures that one is separated by a great distance from the path of birth and death. And the sutra Discourse on Expanding One’s Realization states: If one engages in a single session of meditative stability, this is more meaningful than if one were to save the lives of as many people as would fill the three realms. Furthermore, it is said that cultivating meditative absorption undermines one’s fixation on sense pleasures, resolves issues on which one is indecisive, arouses powers of deeper discernment and absorption, awakens supreme compassion, brings insight into the significance of the authentic nature of reality, ensures that one is capable of bringing those to be guided to enlightenment, and so forth. To cite from the sutra the Compendium: Through meditative stability, one downplays and casts aside sense pleasures. Once actually gains spiritual potential, powers of deeper discernment, and meditative absorption. And according to the Ten Cycles of Kṣitigarbha: By cultivating meditative absorption, one resolves doubts, but without that realization, one cannot do so by other means. Therefore, since the cultivation of meditative absorption is most excellent, the wise will pursue it intently. In the Authentic Consolidation of Qualities we read the following: By resting the mind in equipoise, one will gain insight into the authentic nature just as it is. It is through seeing the authentic nature just as it is that bodhisattvas embrace a supreme compassion toward beings. And as is stated in the Ornament of the Sutras: Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 32 3/18/13 3:55 PM Purpose 33 It is through meditative stability, moreover, that all beings are brought to the three degrees of enlightenment.50 Given that all the profound teachings that are imbued with such great significance are included in this great Treasury, [13a] if those gifted with intelligence will protect the continuity of their transmission by putting them into practice themselves and explaining and disseminating them to others, this will ensure something that is enormously meaningful, in both the short term and the long term. The purpose of the foregoing discussion can be found in Reasoning for a Detailed Explanation: Once they have seen the great significance of the sutras, those who hear them will feel a devotion to hearing and upholding them, so at the outset the purpose should be discussed. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 33 3/18/13 3:55 PM Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 34 3/18/13 3:55 PM To discuss in a concise way the manner in which these teachings developed in the holy country of India and in Tibet, in general there seem to have been many lines of transmission, both major and minor, that developed in this Land of Snows as extensive lineages of accomplishment. But a summary of the principal ones, those that constitute the very foundation, consists of those renowned as the eight great mainstream traditions. The great learned and accomplished master Prajñārasmi stated: As prophesied by the Victorious One, the lord protectors of beings in the Land of Snows, whose principal intent was solely and entirely concerned with the teachings, were the rulers who were the unique and divine figures among the spiritual kings of old. The second Teacher in this land of glacial mountains and the great editor and translator Pagor Bairotsana; the lay master Dromtön, who maintained the bloodline of the Victorious One; the great learned and accomplished master Khyungpo Naljorpa; the great guru Drokmi, speaker of two languages; the venerable Jetsun Marpa, powerful lord among yogins; Dampa of India, who attained the level of a siddha; Gyijo the translator; and the learned and accomplished Orgyenpa: these eight are the great pillars who upheld lineages of accomplishment in the northern land. Deriving in an excellent way from glorious Vajradhara, II Traditions in India and Tibet Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 35 3/18/13 3:55 PM 36 The Catalog these eight great pillars are the lineages of accomplishment in this land of glacial mountains; they are the legacies of siddhas of the past. Those who desire liberation follow in the wake of these paths. That is to say, in the succession of Tibetan rulers were those known as the three ancestral monarchs—magical emanations of the “lords of the three families.” It was due to their superb motivation and enlightened activities that the sun of the Victorious One’s teachings spread its illuminating rays throughout the darkness in the Land of Snows. [13b] The heart essence of these teachings lies in the eight great mainstream lineages of accomplishment, made up of those who upheld the extensive traditions of the Early Translation school of Nyingma, the Kadampa, the Lamdrepa, the Marpa Kagyu, the Shangpa Kagyu, the Zhije and associated teachings, the Jordruk, and the Dorje Sumgyi Nyendrub. A. Nyingma In the case of the first of these, as the manifest aspect of timeless awareness (the primordial lord protector Samantabhadra), the sambhogakāya Vajradhara arose as awareness’s own manifestation. The manifestation of innate compassionate responsiveness as “other” was that of the victorious ones of the five families, who revealed limitless approaches based on skillful methods of empowerment and transformation to bodhisattvas on the ten levels of realization. In the pinnacle realm of Akaniṣṭha in the immaculate abodes, the sambhogakāya appropriate to that realm taught the “approaches that lead away from the all-pervasive origin of suffering” and the “approaches that evoke awareness through ascetic practices.” The Great Perfection teachings were codified by Vajrasattva, those of anuyoga by the master of awareness Kunjara, and those of mahāyoga by Vajradharma and others. These teachings were entrusted to the lords of the three families and to the ḍākinī Lekyi Wangmo and others. Teachers and retinues in these cases abided in the equality of enlightened intent, the dharma being such that there was no sense of someone being taught distinct from someone doing the teaching, but due to its manifesting simply as a mode that derives from the dynamic energy of timeless awareness, there is the “lineage of mind-to-mind transmission of victorious ones.” The atiyoga teachings were transmitted successively to the child of the gods Adhicitta, Garap Dorje, Mañjuśrīmitra, Śrīsiṃha, Vimalamitra, and others. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 36 3/18/13 3:55 PM Traditions in India and Tibet 37 The teachings of anuyoga and mahāyoga were demonstrated through mere symbols to the lords of the three families, the five exalted masters of holy heritage, and others, whereupon they thoroughly mastered these teachings. This is the “lineage of transmission through symbols by masters of awareness.” Due to the blessings of the Lord of Secrets, the texts of the eighteen tantras actually fell onto the roof of the palace of the fortunate king Jaḥ, while volumes of the anuyoga teachings fell in a forest on the island of Śrī Laṅkā. The Lord of Secrets revealed himself to King Jaḥ in a vision and conferred empowerment on him. The transmission then passed successively to Kukurāja, Indrabodhi,51 Siṃharāja, and other human masters of awareness. This is the “lineage of oral transmission by human individuals.” Thus, through the foregoing threefold lineage, the profound cycles of ati, anu, and so forth were transmitted in the holy country [14a] to a few fortunate individuals, imparted to each as a private teaching without being promulgated further. The rulers, patrons, and teachers involved respected the seal of secrecy entailed and concealed these teachings at Vajrāsana and other places. During the time in which the Buddhist king Trisong Detsen was first causing the teachings of the Victorious One to spread in the land of Tibet, it is explained that there were many stages, but if we summarize the primary ones, they are six in number: 1. The second Buddha, Padmākara, in the perceptions of ordinary individuals to be guided, taught simply the text Pith Instructions: The Garland of Views. On extraordinary people of good fortune he bestowed the maturing empowerments and liberating instructions for the three yogas on a profound and vast scale, with the oral lineage of these teachings passing down through uninterrupted lines of siddhas and masters of awareness, such as the traditions of Nyang, Pang, Khön, Nup, Ma, Rongzom, and others. The majority of the cycles of his advice were sealed as hidden treasure teachings (termas) for the sake of future generations of those to be guided. 2. The great translator Bairotsana taught such individuals as the twenty-five learned ones from India; in particular, the master of awareness Śrīsiṃha received the profound teachings of the Great Perfection approach on a vast scale and caused these to be promulgated in Tibet as the five stages of the Category of Mind and uninterrupted continuum of the “heard lineage” of the Category of Expanse. 3. With the coming of the great scholar Vimalamitra to Tibet, those to whom he gave the cycles of teachings of the Category of Direct Transmission Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 37 3/18/13 3:55 PM 38 The Catalog in the Great Perfection approach passed on lineages of continuous teachings as well as those of hidden treasure teachings. 4. The great master Sangye Yeshe of the Nup clan received limitless advice—such as that of the great reading transmission of the Discourse of the Gathering, the cycles of Yamāntaka, and so forth—from four masters of India, Nepal, and Gilgit; the oral lineage of the Discourse of the Gathering survives to the present day. 5. Namkhai Nyingpo of the Nup clan received the cycle of teachings of the glorious deity Samyak from the master Hūṁkāra and promulgated this, and as well ensured that the teachings of the Vajrayāna approach fell, as is said, “first to Nyak, following that to Nup, and finally to Zur,” such that their lineages of teachings and students became limitless. In particular, during the time of the “three ancestors of Zur,” the way in which the teachings of the secret mantra approach spread in Tibet [14b] was said to rival that of Oḍḍiyāna. 6. In future generations, fortunate beings who were emanations of the king and his subjects appeared in succession, bringing forth the profound teachings concealed as hidden treasure from their places of concealment, in accord with the times, so that all beings throughout central Tibet and the surrounding regions were granted unsurpassable benefit and happiness in the short and the long term. B. Kadam In the case of the Kadampa tradition, the Noble Lord, the glorious Atīśa (who was renowned as being an emanation of the buddha Amitābha and having attained the third level of realization) came to Tibet. There he found that, due to the evil ruler Langdarma’s attempts to eradicate the teachings that had been established by the ancestral spiritual monarchs, the sutra tradition and the Vinaya had been undermined, while the secret mantra approach had become distorted into perverted forms of behavior. In order to ensure that the teachings of the Sage were once again elucidated, Atīśa composed his Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment, a complete overview of the stages on the paths of the three spiritual models that is based on the meaning of what is taught in such sources as the Ornament of the Mahāyāna Sutras and the Stages of the Bodhisattva. He emphasized the view of the Middle Way, the conduct of the Vinaya, and the advice concerning the precious awakening attitude of bodhicitta. Atīśa established a system of teaching that allowed a single individual to experience all the Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 38 3/18/13 3:55 PM Traditions in India and Tibet 39 words of the Victorious One arising as personal advice for awakening to buddhahood. The foremost among Atīśa’s students were Khu, Ngok, and Drom,52 who were emanations of the bodhisattvas of the three families.53 Of these, Dromtön Gyalwai Jungne (who was Avalokiteśvara in the flesh) had three students who were known as the three brothers. From these three there developed three traditions: • Putowa Rinchen Sal established the branch of the Kadampa of “those teaching mainstream sources,” that is, those such as Lang and Shar54 (who were compared to the united sun and moon), who upheld the tradition of teaching six major sources. • Chenga Tsultrim Bar established the branch of “those teaching advice,” transmitted by such masters as Jayulwa, who taught the four truths as personal advice. • Puchungwa Zhönu Gyaltsen established the branch of “those teaching pith instructions,” transmitted by such masters as Tapkawa, who conferred the maturing empowerments and liberating instructions for the “sixteen spheres,” as well as the supportive transmission of the precious volumes of secret teachings. These three branches, as well as the lineage of oral transmission from Naktso, developed extensively, spreading throughout the eastern and central regions of Tibet. In later times the centers that upheld this tradition itself waned somewhat, [15a] but the illuminating activities of the glorious Tsongkhapa Lozang Drakpa, an emanation of Mañjuśrī, in elucidating these teachings once again caused them to spread over the surface of the earth. C. Lamdre As for the tradition of “The Path with the Result,” Vajra Nairātmyā conferred empowerment on the powerful lord of yogins Śrīdharmapāla (“Glorious Protector of the Dharma”)55 within a mandala that she emanated. The realization of the sixth level became fully evident to him, and he became renowned as the mahāsiddhā Virūpa, or Birwapa.56 It was he who, relying on the tantra of Hevajra, bestowed the Vajra Lines of the Lamdre teachings for the sake of Kāṇha of the East, on whom he conferred an abridged explanation of the tantra, as well as extensive instructions on the Path with the Result. To Ḍombipa he granted an extensive explanation of the tantra Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 39 3/18/13 3:55 PM 40 The Catalog and abridged instructions. From these two the transmissions were passed down through lineages of successive masters of accomplishment. Among the translators in Tibet during the later spread of the teachings were three who served as authentic sources of the secret mantra approach, or Vajrayāna: Mar, Gö, and Drok. One of these, Drokmi Lotsāwa Śākya Yeshe, received a complete range of mainstream sources and advice from Gayadhara and Vīravajra. He also received the “eight later cycles concerning the path,” such as the instructions of the mahāsiddhā Saroruha. In Tibet he conferred these teachings on his students: the seven siddhās, the seven students who received a complete transmission of the primary sources, and the four students who received a complete transmission of the pith instructions.57 From these four there developed in the Lamdre tradition three lineages of the sons who were students. Among these, from Sekar Chungwa58 there further developed three lines through those who received from him an ideal, a middling, and a lesser transmission. The middling transmission was propagated through the Zhamas,59 from whom some seven traditions developed. The ideal transmission came through Zhangtön Chöbar, from whom Sachen Kunga Nyingpo received it. There were the traditions of the earlier spiritual son Pakmo Drupa and Chegom, and both extensive and more direct lineages came to the later sons.60 As well, Gyijo Lotsāwa studied with Gayadhara, which led to a lineage succession. There came to be what were renowned collectively as the eighteen traditions of Lamdre. From these, the Sakya tradition itself has endured as the most widespread in terms of activity. [15b] With respect to that tradition, moreover, Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo studied with the mahāsiddhā Buddhaśrī, which led to the lineage succession of the Ngor tradition: the “explication for the assembly.”61 The Dzong tradition of Lamdre is that of Dorje Denpa Kunga Namgyal and is the lineage that came from Ngakchang Zungkyi Palwa. And Tsarchen Losal Gyatso studied with Doring Kunpangpa Chenpo and passed this transmission on to his two heart sons,62 who were compared to the sun and moon, which led to the lineage of the Tsar tradition: the “explication for disciples.”63 All of these are still living traditions. Generally speaking, the great guru Drokmi Lotsāwa received personal transmissions of the exceptional instructions renowned as the “nine cycles of the path.” The first of these, the cycle of the Path with the Result, compiled by the lord of yogins Birwapa, has just been discussed. As for the “eight later cycles concerning the path,” six are concerned with the stage of completion associated with the three cycles of Cakrasaṃvara, Hevajra, and Guhyasamāja, while two are commentaries on the tantra classes in general. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 40 3/18/13 3:55 PM Traditions in India and Tibet 41 They are: 1. Ensuring the Innate State, a text on the stage of completion according to the “commentarial tradition” of Hevajra, authored by Ḍombi Heruka on the basis of the Two Sections; 2. Saroruha’s Sādhana, based on the tantra Vajra Pavilion, for which the instructions are those referred to as “like the tip of a candle flame” and those on the nine profound methods of the stage of completion, authored by the master Padmavajra and known as the Hevajra tradition of Saroruha, the Lake-Born One; 3. The six mainstream sources of Kṛṣṇa, authored by Kṛṣṇacāryavajra on the basis of the explanatory tantra of Cakrasaṃvara, of which the practical application of the Olapati is “the complete path of caṇḍalī”; 4. The pith instruction for “straightening the crooked,” authored by the master Ucitāmara, which is the practical application as a root summary of the Droplet of Spring; 5. Commentary on Bodhicitta, authored by the glorious lord protector Ārya Nāgārjuna on the basis of the Guhyasamāja Tantra, the practical application of which is the pith instruction of “achieving a decisive state of mind in the presence of a stupa,” that is, the stage of completion associated with Guhyasamāja Akṣobhya; 6. Treatises authored by the great scholar Vāgīśvarakīrti, such as Illuminating the Seven Branches, which emphasizes the enlightened intent of the glorious Guhyasamāja cycle, [16a] the practice of which is the Mahāmudrā without Letters, connected with the tradition of the venerable Jñāna; 7. The pith instructions on the “stages of the inconceivable,” authored by the mahāsiddhā Kuddāla, based on the Well-Sealed Locket; and 8. Successive Levels of Empowerment, authored by the Buddhist monarch Indrabhūti on the basis of the entire anuttarayoga class of tantras, the practice of which is the “Completion of the Four Seals.” As well, once Drokmi Lotsāwa had finished his study and training and was preparing to return to Tibet, he established a connection with the six erudite gatekeepers of Vikramaśīla, requesting and receiving an instruction from each, collectively known as the spiritual connections with the six gatekeepers. These and other instructions and reading transmissions have endured without interruption. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 41 3/18/13 3:55 PM 42 The Catalog D. Marpa Kagyu With respect to the oral lineage of the lord Marpa, the great and glorious Tilopa established an extensive lineage in receiving individual transmissions from the mahāsiddhās Ārya Nāgārjuna, Ḍombipa, Lūipāda, and Sukhasiddhi; these became the pith instructions associated with his four personal transmissions. He practiced for a long time, training in the realizations associated with the spiritual path, until he became a great and powerful master among siddhās, actually cared for by Vajradhara and Vajrayoginī, who conferred on him the treasury of the four classes of tantra. After the great scholar Nāropa had trained with him, engaging in twelve great hardships, Nāropa gained attainment, mastering the meaning of the teachings in its entirety simply through symbols and words. Marpa Chökyi Lodrö journeyed to the holy country of India three or four times, studying a limitless range of sutras and tantras with many learned and accomplished masters, Nāropa and Maitrīpa foremost among them. In particular, during his earlier and later journeys, he spent a total of sixteen years and seven months with Nāropa alone, integrating study, contemplation, and meditation so that he came to dwell in a state of attainment. On the occasion of Marpa’s final journey, Nāropa had already entered into a phase of advanced tantric conduct, so Marpa sought him out by undergoing great hardship and supplicating him. He actually met Nāropa at Puṣpahari in northern India and spent seven months with him while Nāropa conferred on Marpa the complete transmission of the oral lineage of the masculine and feminine aspects of Cakrasaṃvara. [16b] In Tibet, the foremost among the students on whom Marpa bestowed profound teachings were known as the four great pillars. From among these, three—Me, Ngok, and Tsur—received the personal transmission of the lineage of exegesis, while the venerable Milarepa received that of the lineage of accomplishment. Among the many students of Mila, including the “seven who ascended to Khecara” and the “eight cotton-clad brethren,” one of the foremost was his heart son Rechung Dorje Drakpa, who was compared to the moon and from whom came the Oral Lineage of Rechung (Rechung Nyengyu); several of its instructions, such as those concerning Amitāyus and Caṇḍa, spread throughout the entire Land of Snows. The student who was compared to the sun and who was praised in the prophecies of the Victorious One was the great, incomparable Gampopa, whose coming was in every way similar to that of an actual buddha coming into the world. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 42 3/18/13 3:55 PM Traditions in India and Tibet 43 Although he had an inconceivable number of students whom he brought to spiritual maturity and liberation, the foremost were those who upheld the lineages renowned as the four senior branches: • Barompa Darma Wangchuk, from whom came the Barom Kagyu; • Pakmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo, from whom came the Pakdru Kagyu; • the glorious Dusum Khyenpa, from whom came the Karma Kagyu; and • Zhang Tsalpa Tsöndru Drakpa (a student of Gampopa’s student Öngom Tsultrim Nyingpo), from whom came the Tsalpa Kagyu. • As well, a fifth branch, the Dakpo Kagyu, came from the succession that followed the three “uncle and nephew” masters of Dakpo, which was the primary seat of Dakpo. Some 500 students of Pakmo Drupa were famed as being worthy of a ceremonial canopy. From the foremost among them came what were renowned as the eight junior branches of Kagyu, or “the four pairs, totaling eight.” These students were: • Kyoppa Jikten Sumgyi Gönpo, from whom came the Drigung Kagyu; • Tangpa Tashi Palwa, from whom came the Taklung Kagyu; • Drogön Gyaltsa Kuön, from whom came the Tropu Kagyu; • Lingje Repa Pema Dorje, from whom came the Lingre Kagyu; • Marpa Rinchen Lodrö, from whom came the Martsang Kagyu; • Yelpa Yeshe Tsekpa, from whom came the Yelpa Kagyu; • Zarawa Yeshe Senge, from whom came the Yapzang Kagyu; and • Nyipu Gyergom Chökyi Senge, from whom came the Shuksep Kagyu. [17a] Each of these had its own monastic seat, lineage of teachings, and vast range of activities. In particular, from Götsangpa Gönpo Dorje (who was the foremost student of Lingje Repa’s heart son Drogön Tsangpa Gyare) came the upper branch of the Drukpa, renowned as the “stars in the sky”; from the lineage of his students such as Gyalwa Yangönpa, Latö Sherap Gönpo, Barawa Gyaltsen Zangpo, and others came specific subbranches of the Kagyu. From Lore Darma Wangchuk came the lower branch of the Drukpa: the “focal point of earth.” And through the nine masters named Senge, who upheld the monastic seat, came the uninterrupted transmission of the middle branch of the Drukpa. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 43 3/18/13 3:55 PM 44 The Catalog On the basis of the special nature of the lord Dusum Khyenpa’s motivation and aspirations, the incredible students and activities of each of his successive incarnations constituted the Kaṃtsang tradition, the primary branch of the Kagyu. Two further branches developed: the Zurmang Kagyu came from Drung Mase Lodrö Rinchen, who was invested as the master of the fifth lord Dezhin Shekpa’s oral lineage known as the “Three Cycles of the Gem,” while the Nedo Kagyu came from the learned and accomplished Karma Chakme, who was a personal student of the sixth Garwang, Chökyi Wangchuk. From among the foregoing, nowadays only the Karma Kagyu (as one of the four senior branches) and the Drukpa, the Drigung, and the Taklung (of the eight junior branches) are still lineages that can stand on their own. Of the remaining branches, only the transmissions of a few minor maturing empowerments and liberating teachings have not disappeared; other than these, the presence of these branches is no longer felt to any great degree. E. Shangpa Kagyu Concerning the Shangpa Kagyu, the learned and accomplished master Khyungpo Naljor (who was prophesied by the Victorious One as a “great śrāvaka worker of miracles”) first embraced his ancestral religion of Bön and then the Nyingma school. Although he became learned in each of these systems and gained some spiritual power thereby, due to the power of his aspiration to engage in enlightened conduct finding a timely expression, he was not satisfied with them alone and so journeyed to the holy country of India. He met with some 150 learned and accomplished masters, foremost among them his four primary gurus (Vajrāsana and others), and studied an enormous range of teachings from both sutra and tantra. [17b] In particular, he actually met the ḍākinīs of timeless awareness Niguma and Sukhasiddhi, who had both heard teachings directly from Vajradhara and who dwelled on one of the three pure levels of realization. They bestowed profound instructions on him, and he became a great lord among siddhās, indistinguishable from such sublime mahāsiddhās as Saraha, as exemplified by the fact that the deities of the five tantras were actually present in the five places of his body. Because he established his seat at Zhang Zhong in the Shang valley of the Yeru region of Tsang province, he was known as Lama Shangpa, and so those who continued his lineage became famed as the Shangpa Kagyu. Khyungpo Naljor lived to the age of 150, maturing and liberating an inconceivable number of those who were to be guided, so that his students included some 180,000 teachers. Foremost among these were the Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 44 3/18/13 3:55 PM Traditions in India and Tibet 45 five “earlier sons” and a sixth “later son.” And among these, it was only to Mokchokpa Rinchen Tsöndru that the personal transmission fell for the one-to-one lineage of the secret words of Vajradhara. After him this lineage passed in succession to Öntön Kyergangpa, Sangye Nyentön, Sangye Tönpa, and Drogön Tönpa. The vajra seal of this one-to-one transmission was then loosened by the seventh “jewel,” Chöje Tönpa, in accord with prophecies from Vajradhara and the ḍākinī of timeless awareness, thus allowing accomplished students to spread throughout the human world Jambudvīpa and as far away as its subcontinents. The primary holders of the continuing lineage were Tsangma Shangtön, Samdingpa Zhönu Drup, and Jakchen Gyaltsen Bum, all three of whom committed the instructions to writing. Countless lineages of students developed at the seats of both Jakchen and Samdingpa. There also appeared another series of great and exceptional beings known as the later seven jewels, such as Khyungpo Tsultrim Gönpo, who was a student of Tsangma Shangtön. In addition, countless other lineages developed: from Chöje Tönpa’s student Serlingpa Tashi Pal, from the succession of Latö Könchok Kar’s students, and so forth. Later on, the mahāsiddhā Tangtong Gyalpo received the distinct “upper” and “lower” lineages and practiced these teachings, so that he was actually taken under the care of the ḍākinī of timeless awareness, [18a] which resulted in three successive direct lineages that still exist nowadays. The venerable Jetsun Kunga Drolchok received the extensive lineage of these teachings on some twenty-four occasions, and a twenty-fifth time—a marvelous and extremely direct lineage—when the ḍākinī actually bestowed instructions on him in this direct manner. Jetsun Tāranātha combined these twenty-five transmissions in the instruction manual found in this collection. As for the cycle of teachings concerned with the “swift-acting lord protector of timeless awareness,” the special dharmapāla of the learned and accomplished Khyungpo, in former times the followers of the so-called upper tradition spread these teachings almost everywhere. Later on, the lower tradition that came from Rigong spread throughout the majority of schools, and in particular the Precious Lord and his spiritual sons adopted this as the foremost of their dharmapāla practices, so that the rituals of offering, praise, sādhana, and activity spread throughout the three region of U, Tsang, and Kham and as far away as China and Mongolia. It would seem that nowadays any tradition that upholds the sources of the “golden teachings” is exceedingly rare. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 45 3/18/13 3:55 PM 46 The Catalog F. Zhije and Its Auxiliary Lineage Kamalaśīla (who was also renowned in both Tibet and China as Padampa Sangye) was a greatly learned master who was born at Cata Senga in the region of Vetāli in India. He received the entire range of profound instructions from some fifty-four accomplished masters, both men and women, and one-pointedly applied himself to the practice of these instructions. In this way he gained the eight major attainments of the more ordinary variety— such as the ability to extract the vital essence of the inanimate world—and so lived for 570 years. In meditation he was graced with visions of twelve sugatas, thirty-six amazing gurus who had attained Khecara, and others; he also gained the supreme attainment: the timeless awareness of the great path of seeing. It was this master who based his teachings primarily on the three versions of the Prajñāpāramitā—extensive, middle-length, and concise—as well as such texts as the tantra Great Flowing River of the Sanskrit Vowels and Consonants, condensing the meaning of these sources for application in spiritual practice. In accord with this master’s own life example, for him the support was that of the three levels of ordination; the path was the challenging one of austerities; and the fruition was conduct for the benefit of others. Those of fortunate karma who followed that example and were liberated on the level of buddhahood were as numerous as stars in the nighttime sky. The specific teachings that brought this about became known by the generic name of “the sacred teachings,” as well as “the pacification of suffering.” [18b] Although these teachings comprise an inconceivable range of instructional methods based on people’s varying degrees of acumen, the lineages that are most renowned are the three successive lines of the transmission of Pacification established by Padampa during some five visits to the land of Tibet: 1. The first line of transmission concerns the “Three Cycles of the Lamp of Pacification” that Padampa imparted to Jñānaguhya of Kashmir and were transmitted by the translator Angpo Lotsāwa and others. 2. In the intermediate line of transmission, the primary masters are Ma, So, and Kaṃ. The transmission of the words and meaning of Mahāmudrā were imparted to Ma Chökyi Sherap; the transmission of the words and meaning of the advice for “perceiving pure awareness in all its nakedness” were imparted to Sochung Gendun Bar; and the transmission of upper linInterior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 46 3/18/13 3:55 PM Traditions in India and Tibet 47 eage and lower lineage of the transcendent perfection of wisdom was imparted to Kaṃ Yeshe Gyaltsen. There were also three minor transmissions: • the “Ninefold Cycle of the Lamp of Pacification,” imparted to Geshe Drapa; • the advice integrating sutra and tantra, imparted to Che Candrakīrti; and • the advice “without letters” on the transcendent perfection of wisdom, imparted to Jang Kadampa. It is also said that there were some fifteen minor transmissions of diverse lineages for such teachings as Lapkyi Drönma’s advice on the Object of Severance. 3. As for the final line of transmission, when Padampa returned from China to Dingri, there were transmissions beyond counting, of maturing empowerments and liberating instructions that he bestowed on his students: the twenty-six “destroyers of illusion,” his more than one hundred great and exalted spiritual sons, the twenty-four noble ladies, the twelve students who directed monastic seats, and others. However, the foremost of these students were known as the four favored yogins, who compiled teachings and wrote them down: • in the east, Dampa Charchen, who compiled the “Cycle of the Teachings That Integrate the Sutras”; • in the south, Vajrakrodha, who compiled the “Cycle Organizing the Meaning of the Precious Jewel”; • in the west, Dampa Purchung, who compiled the “Cycle That Compiles Fragmentary Teachings”; and • in the north, the bodhisattva Kunga, who compiled the “Cycle of the Teachings of Cholu.” Of the foregoing three lineages, the intermediate one is explained as being in accord with the final cycle of the Buddha’s teachings (that is, the sutras that concern the definitive meaning of the teachings), while the later lineage is primarily in accord with the tantric approach. All of the foregoing lineages, moreover, are complete spiritual paths, but Padampa averred that the most exalted among them—equal in its intent to that of Padampa himself—is the tradition of the holy master Kunga. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 47 3/18/13 3:55 PM 48 The Catalog This cycle of teachings is composed of a vast range of sections, of both more ordinary and extraordinary teachings. [19a] Although all three lineages were formerly very widespread, nowadays they exist only in name. But the great translator Dharmaśrī of Mindroling put much effort into receiving whatever transmissions were available and writing manuals and ritual texts. It would seem that it is due to his kindness that at least the fundamental elements of the maturing empowerments and liberating instructions for all three lineages (the earlier, the intermediate, and the later), and particularly for the tradition of the holy master Kunga, are still extant. The auxiliary cycle, the Object of Severance, is renowned for having two branches: the “male” lineage of Severance and the “female” lineage. As for the former, Padampa Sangye bestowed on Kyo Śākya Yeshe and Yalung Mara Serpo the exclusively sutra tradition of Severance: the instructions called Six Fragments, which discuss the meaning of Āryadeva’s short text Fifty Verses. 64 Kyo conferred these on his nephew, Sönam Lama, who in turn is said to have conferred four of these Fragments on Machik Lapkyi Drönma. The cycle transmitted by Mara Serpo was promulgated by Rok Sherap Ö and Khedrup Zhönu Drup. The foregoing is known as the male lineage of Severance. As for the female lineage, the same Machik Lapkyi Drönma—who was the great mother Prajñāpāramitā manifesting as a human woman—read the sutra of the transcendent perfection of wisdom aloud, which aroused in her the view of emptiness. With Padampa teaching her a few words of heart advice, she experienced an ongoing sense of freedom and became a natural yoginī. Out of her own experience of enlightened intent—the meaning of the intent found in the Prajñāpāramitā Sutras—Machik established the extensive tradition of the path of Severance, composing an incredible number of cycles of advice. All of these are subsumed within four lineages: the father lineage of skillful method, the mother lineage of wisdom, the nondual lineage of ultimate meaning, and the ḍākinī’s lineage of meditative experience. Her many students, including some 108 male and female siddhās who were her personal students, lived throughout central and eastern Tibet. Foremost among them were her sixteen great spiritual children to whom personal transmission fell, whose activities flourished everywhere. Her own son Langlungpa Gyalwa Döndrup became the foremost one upholding the lineage of the sutra tradition. The upholder of the lineage of the tantra tradition was Tönyön Samdrup, who became renowned as a siddhā and whose special lineage of Severance was known as Gangpa.65 [19b] The one upholding the lineage that integrated the traditions of sutra and tantra was Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 48 3/18/13 3:55 PM Traditions in India and Tibet 49 Khugom Chökyi Senge, whose lineage produced many further lineages that came from individual siddhās. In particular, the Gyalwang Karmapa Rangjung Dorje received the teachings of Severance from Namtso Dopa, and from that lineage came the Severance lineages of “Rupa.” In later times there developed the traditions of Zurmang and Nedo. There also developed countless other traditions from various lineage holders, as exemplified by the Kyapche tradition that came from Jetsun Kyase and the Trechö tradition that came from Treho Chökyi Wangpo. An extensive lineage came from Machik’s daughters, while Gyaltang Samten Özer received many distinct transmissions and met directly with Machik, who bestowed instructions on him; all of this led to the Tang tradition.66 There were many profound teachings that Machik did not confer on her students but concealed as hidden treasure teachings. In later times these were revealed by Ladu Dorje Drönma, who was an emanation of Machik herself. Kunpang Tsöndru Senge, a rebirth of Khugom, revealed a profound and vast array of hidden treasure teachings from concealment; it would seem that the later transmission of these has continued to the present day as the Gyatön lineage of Severance. G. Jordruk The Vajrayoga of the Six Branches of Union dates from the time when our Teacher, the perfect Buddha, was teaching a vast range of anuttarayoga source tantras of the Vajrayāna at the glorious stupa of Dhānyakaṭaka to those in his retinue, a vast assembly of beings both of this world and transcendent. On that occasion, in response to a supplication by Dharmarāja Sucandra, who was an emanation,67 the Buddha spoke the source tantra of the Kālacakra cycle in twelve thousand lines. This teaching flourished in the land of Shambhala until the end of the seventh Dharmarāja’s reign. Then the Kalkī ruler Mañjuśrī Yaśas composed an abridged version of the tantra based on the source, and Kalkī Puṇḍarīka elucidated this version in his major commentary. The successive generations of emanated Kalkī rulers spread these teachings, so that they definitely came to mahāsiddhās in the holy country of India at a certain early point in time, if in a somewhat random manner. In the perceptions of people in general, however, the one who first introduced these teachings was Cilu Paṇḍita. When he was traveling to Shambhala seeking the “Bodhisattva Commentaries,”68 [20a] during his journey he was Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 49 3/18/13 3:55 PM 50 The Catalog taken under the care of an emanation of the Kalkī ruler, who bestowed on him the entire range of empowerments, tantras, commentaries, and pith instructions and blessed him so that Cilu thoroughly mastered these teachings. Cilu’s student was Piṇḍo Ācārya, also known as the master who begs for alms. It was from him that Mañjuvajra (also known as Kālacakrapāda the Elder, or Cilupa the Younger) received the teachings. Through the power of the emanated Kalkī ruler’s blessings, Mañjuśrīvajra gained siddhis and actually journeyed to Kalāpa, where he received a complete transmission of the empowerments, tantras, and pith instructions. Emphasizing these teachings, he explained them to those who listened, so that he came to have many students, including Nāropa, Ratnakāragupta, and others. Among these, three figures—Avadhūtipa, Śrībhadrabodhi, and Nālandāpa—were each referred to as Kālacakrapāda the Younger. Initially, the translator Gyijo Lotsāwa Dawai Özer invited Kālacakrapāda Śrībhadrabodhi to this land of Tibet; they translated the commentary on the tantra and the pith instructions. Gyijo trained those known as the four great sons, including the translator Trom Lotsāwa Pema Özer. The Gyilo tradition was transmitted from Trom Lotsāwa. Mañjukīrti was a student of Nālandāpa, and his student in turn was the Nepalese Samantaśrī. It was from Samantaśrī that Ra Lotsāwa Chörap received the teachings that became the Ra tradition. Alternatively, another student of Nālandāpa was the Kashmiri Dawa Gönpo, from whom the teachings passed to Dro Lotsāwa Sherap Drak, to his student Gompa Könchok Sung in turn, and so forth, resulting in the Dro tradition. Other traditions included the following: • the Tsami tradition, the lineage that passed from Nālandāpa to Tsami Sangye Drak and successive generations; • the Nyö tradition, through Nyö Darma Ö, who received teachings from Tsami’s student Se Lotsāwa Zhönu Tsultrim; • the Chak Lo tradition, another lineage that came from Nālandāpa and passed successively to Abhayākara, Niṣkalaṅka, the Nepalese scholar Ravīndra, and Chak Lotsāwa Chöje Pal; • the Paṇchen (“Great Scholar”) tradition, also called the Chal tradition, which came from Abhayākara to Vikhyātadeva, the Kashmiri scholar Paṇchen Śākyaśrī, and Chal Chökyi Zangpo; • the Rong tradition, which passed from Ra Lotsāwa Chörap to Yeshe Senge, to Bumseng, to Rongpa Ga Lotsāwa Namgyal Dorje, and so on through successive generations of the lineage; Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 50 3/18/13 3:55 PM Traditions in India and Tibet 51 • the Tsal tradition, which was passed from Tsami to Khampa Ga Lotsāwa Zhönupal to Zhang Tsalpa; • the Sakyapa tradition, conferred by Ga Lotsāwa on the great master of Sakya; [20b] • the Kodrak tradition, which was received by Kodrak Sönam Gyaltsen from the great scholar Vibhūticandra, on whom it had been actually conferred by the mahāsiddhā Śāvarīśvara; • the Gö tradition, which Lama Gö received from both Nyen Lotsāwa and Ga Lotsāwa, they in turn having received the teachings from Mañjukīrti and Abhayākara; and • the Kar tradition, which came from Chak Chöje Pal to Golungpa Dodepal, to the learned and accomplished master Orgyenpa, to Nyemdowa Kunga Döndrup, to the lord Rangjung and so on, and which emphasizes the Tsami tradition. In addition, there appeared many other traditions, such as the Bodong tradition (passed down from Shong and Pang), the Koktrangwa tradition, the Latö Wangyal tradition, and others. In later times, however, the two schools that caused the teachings of the Kālacakra cycle to spread very widely in this Land of Snows were the Jonang and the Zhalu. Both of these received teachings initially from the lineage of the Ra tradition and subsequently brought in teachings from the Dro tradition, so that they definitely came to uphold a combined lineage of Ra and Dro. Because the Bu tradition was primarily a personal transmission of exegesis, it has continued from the great Butön to the present day and constitutes an uninterrupted transmission of explanation of the tantra. In the Jonang tradition, the great Kunpang received from successive emanations of the Kalkī rulers the complete tradition of Kālacakra that included all the sources translated into Tibetan. His students were famed as the “four sons of Kunpang.” The great and omniscient Dolpopa’s marvelous activity in spreading the yoga of the Six Branches was truly incredible. Primarily, it was the fourteen students who were considered his equals who each engaged in extensive activities to spread traditions of instruction, which has resulted in an ongoing succession that constitutes a personal transmission of accomplishment. This continues even now without impairment as an ongoing tradition of consummate meditative experience and realization. Generally speaking, in India, the holy country, it would seem that a number of traditions appeared, including those of Kālacakrapāda the Elder and the Younger, Śavaripa, Anupamarakṣita, Raviśrījñāna, the great scholInterior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 51 3/18/13 3:55 PM 52 The Catalog ar Nāropa, the Great Scholar of Kashmir, the mahāsiddhā Śāntigupta, and others. Here in Tibet the most renowned were the “four prior traditions” (of Gyijo, Dro, Ra, and Chödrak of Dingri); the “four intermediate traditions” (of Menlung Guru, Tar Lotsāwa, Orgyenpa, and Vibhūticandra); [21a] the three from Śāvari (earlier, intermediate, and later); and the “later tradition” that came from the great scholar Vanaratna. H. Dorje Sumgyi Nyendrup As for the tradition of Dorje Sumgyi Nyendrup (Stages of Approach and Accomplishment of the Three Vajras), the learned and accomplished master Orgyenpa Rinchen Pal trained completely in the sutras and tantras; in particular he became a superb scholar of the Kālacakra cycle. Training under Gyalwa Götsangpa, he gave rise to a consummate level of realization, beholding the truth of the path of seeing. The lord of dharma Götsangpa extolled Orgyenpa as his heart son, equal to him in uncontrived tantric conduct. In order to develop his conduct to a consummate degree, Orgyenpa journeyed to Jalendhara and many other regions. In particular, he went to the land of Oḍḍiyāna in the west, where many obstacles and quasi-miraculous events occurred; he quelled these with his indwelling confidence on the view and the splendor of his uncontrived conduct. In the four cardinal directions of the central region of Dhūmatala, he was blessed by the ḍākinīs of the four families. In accord with a prophecy uttered by a lovely emanated maiden, he went to a town called Kapoka, where Vajrayoginī herself manifested in the form of a prostitute and bestowed on him the pleasures of food and drink and physical contact, which released the blockages in his subtle channels. With sounds and earthquakes and other great omens, she manifested in actuality as the Vajra Queen and conferred these instructions on him in their entirety. The four previous ḍākinīs and a fifth, the lioness-faced Siṁhamukhā, each conferred a portion of the instructions on Orgyenpa as well, and he gained the sublime and more ordinary attainments. Orgyenpa journeyed to Tibet, where, in response to a supplication by Kharchu Rinpoche, a student who had received a prophecy concerning this, he first committed the vajra verses of this cycle to writing. He composed a Mnemonic Summary of verses concerning the visualizations that he had bestowed. Dawa Senge, who was entrusted with safeguarding these teachings, compiled the pith instructions into a volume. There are also what are referred to as the four major commentaries: The replies that Orgyenpa gave to questions from Golungpa Zhönu Pal were recorded; Zurpukpa Rinchen Pal Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 52 3/18/13 3:55 PM Traditions in India and Tibet 53 authored a major commentary; and both the learned Shangtön and Nyedo Kunga Döndrup composed detailed explanations of the vajra verses. Numerous traditions of these teachings developed, such as the lineage that passed from Patrapa Sönam Özer through Chöje Gangpa and was received by Palden Lama Sönam Gyaltsen. [21b] The venerable and omniscient Rangjung received the entire cycle of instructions from the mahāsiddhā himself, composed a commentary to unravel the vajra verses, and further elucidated this noble path, the key points of which are more especially exalted than others. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 53 3/18/13 3:55 PM Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 54 3/18/13 3:55 PM In terms of what the teachings in this collection constitute in their essence, eight topics are to be identified: • the Nyingma, or Early Translation school • the Kadam • the Lamdre • the Kagyu • the Shangpa • the Zhije and Chö • the Jordruk • the Nyendrup A. Nyingma In the first case, that of the Early Translation school and its classification of nine approaches, with respect to the three yogas of the inner level of skillful method, there have developed many graduated approaches to meditation. These, however, can be subsumed within the two categories of those that involve some thematic structure and those that do not. As the Three Stages states: The stage of meditating on a thematic structure and that of cultivating the experience of suchness itself— the specific variations are spoken of as twofold. Of these, in this collection the emphasis is on presenting the sources for the stages of meditation in atiyoga, the pinnacle of the nine approaches. III Identification of Teachings Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 55 3/18/13 3:55 PM 56 The Catalog This is the latter of the three categories of development, completion, and Great Perfection. If we interpret the Sanskrit term mahāsandhi, it translates as “great meditative absorption” or “great meditative stability”; that is, the meaning is that of timeless awareness, in which all phenomena of samsara and nirvana are naturally arising within the expanse of the oneness that is the true way in which things abide, transcending all the systems of the eight approaches of ordinary consciousness. If this approach is further categorized, we read the following in the Supreme Array: the Category of Mind for those with conceptual minds, the Category of Expanse for those with minds like space, and the Category of Direct Transmission for those who need not strive step by step. Accordingly, the Great Perfection is renowned to involve three categories, because there are different degrees of profundity within this approach that forges the path of naturally occurring timeless awareness. Of these, in the outer Category of Mind, the realization of all phenomena as being the display of the oneness of mind itself—beyond causes and conditions, effort and achievement—brings freedom from the limitation of there being factors to be eliminated. There are seven further subcategories within this, such as the position that the fruition state is the origin of mind. In the inner Category of Expanse, free of anything to be done, the realization that all objects in the phenomenal world are without coming or going within the expanse of Samantabhadrā—and that they therefore do not undergo change within the basic space of the three kāyas as natural attributes—brings freedom from the limitation of there being antidotes. [22a] This has four subsections: the three of the White Expanse, Black Expanse, and Multicolored Expanse, plus the Immense Expanse. In the secret and profound Category of Direct Transmission, there is the realization that the way in which all phenomena of ground, path, and fruition actually are is such that their innate attribute is the fact of the inseparability of original purity and spontaneous presence; and in accord with this realization, there is freedom from the limitations of factors to be eliminated as well as antidotes. This category includes three kinds of texts: personal advice, miscellaneous instructions, and teachings that discuss the tantras that are the source specific to this category. In this regard, the All-Creating Monarch contains the following lines: Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 56 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 57 Six approaches that bring the attainment of certainty are shown to be points of error concerning the great perfection. Such passages demonstrate the fact that, in every case, all the fixed concepts pertaining to the sutras and to the outer and inner tantras (up to and including the anuyoga approach) are solely systems of thought constrained by ordinary rational consciousness, so that one succumbs to the error of failing to see the primordial way in which things actually abide, just as it is. Timeless awareness in the context of the Great Perfection approach transcends the eight avenues of ordinary discursive consciousness, which entail imagining and describing things in terms of cause and effect. It is a supreme freedom from conceptual elaboration, with all limitless states of ordinary mind and mental events having subsided within basic space. It is the fundamentally unconditioned mode of being that is the true nature of pure awareness, occurring in and of itself, supremely free of anything to be done and transcending ordinary consciousness. Other than constituting a naturally abiding process of resting in its own fundamental nature, it is not contrived through any artificial means, and so the adventitious distortions that are manifestations of its dynamic energy have dissipated naturally within the basic space of genuine being. It is therefore remarkably superior to all lower systems of thought, a fact that is discussed in the tantra Naturally Arising Awareness: How marvelous! The great perfection of ati does not fall into any extreme and so embraces the ultimate meaning of naturally occurring timeless awareness. To give an analogy, just as the carnivorous lion awes other predators with its majesty, so the Great Perfection speaks its own language and awes inferior approaches with its majesty. The Great Perfection speaks its own language and relies on its own ultimate meaning.69 In this and similar passages, this source presents the definitive secrets of unique view and meditation. In the Supreme Array of Ati, moreover, following an extensive presentation of the way in which this approach is superior to systems of view and meditation that involve conceptual speculation, we read the following: Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 57 3/18/13 3:55 PM 58 The Catalog Therefore, this quintessence that is the definitive secret is like a lamp that illuminates the darkness; it is like an elephant among oxen; it is like a lion among other wild beasts; [22b] it is like a horseman among foot soldiers. It is superior to all other approaches. The preceding citation is an illustration of the extensive treatment found in this text. As for the key points of this path, the Great Perfection approach is endowed with the special teachings of the unsurpassable instructions concerning “fourfold freedom.” And in particular, having received the empowerment into the dynamic energy of pure awareness from the secret cycle of the Category of Direct Transmission, with unimpaired faith and samaya one familiarizes oneself to some significant degree with the yoga of day and night. Even if one does so, one still might not gain the level of primordial freedom in this lifetime. Nevertheless, through the power of the blessings of the lineage of masters of awareness and that of the true nature of things, when one becomes free of the cage of the physical body, immediately upon calling nirmāṇakāya pure realms to mind, one beholds the nirmāṇakāya realms of the ten directions and is inspired to the level of “universal illumination.” This process is described in such passages as the following from the Supreme Array of Ati: In the final of the five-hundred-year periods in degenerate times, this heart essence of secrets will manifest in the human realm. Those fortunate individuals who follow and uphold this and to whom this heart essence becomes evident will pass to the level of unchanging being. Even if, due to having a short life and many illnesses in these degenerate times, they do not gain indwelling confidence in this heart essence, by perceiving it they gain supreme inspiration, taking pure and miraculous rebirth in the nirmāṇakāya realm of Universal Illumination, freed from the confines of the womb. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 58 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 59 B. Kadam As for the Kadampa, this refers to the tradition of the glorious Atīśa— known as the Noble Lord and the “single deity” of the Land of Snows—in which all the words of the Victorious One are experienced as personal advice by which a single individual can awaken to buddhahood. There is a saying, “The bodies of those who uphold this lineage are adorned with four deities, their speech is adorned with the Three Compilations, and their minds are adorned with the three higher trainings.” Of these, the four deities are Śākyamuni, the master of the teachings; Avalokiteśvara, the master of love and compassion; Tārā, who dispels external obstacles; and Acala, who dispels internal obstacles. The Three Compilations are the presentations with which the three higher trainings are counted together as the subject matter being presented, so that this tradition is renowned as embodying mastery that is endowed with seven divine components. This tradition has three parts: primary sources, advice, and pith instructions. [23a] As for the primary sources, this tradition emphasizes a living process of listening to and explaining six sources: the Garland of Lives and the Didactic Aphorisms, as the sources that arouse one’s faith; the Compendium of Training and Entering the Way of the Bodhisattva, as the sources that teach about one’s conduct; and the Levels of the Bodhisattva and the Ornament of the Mahāyāna Sutras, as the sources concerning meditative absorption. The advice is instruction on the basis of the four truths—of suffering, of its all-pervasive origin, of its cessation, and of the spiritual path to it—in terms of the usual progression and its reversal. The pith instructions concern the practical implementation of secret teachings found in the Precious Volume. As that source states: Please recall the guru, the source of refuge. Your body is of the nature of the deity. Please use your speech to engage continuously in recitation and mantra repetition. Think of all beings without exception as your parents. Investigate the way in which mind truly abides as empty. In maintaining these five, please purify all your fundamentally positive qualities! Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 59 3/18/13 3:55 PM 60 The Catalog That is to say, the path is forged of the “sixteen spheres,” on both the relative and the ultimate levels, derived from the five recollections of the guru, the deity, mantra, compassion, and emptiness. The Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment by the Noble Lord presents an integrated treatment of the primary sources and the advice. Given that it is indispensable for one to embrace this unerring path right up to the point at which liberation and omniscience are attained, it is famed as the “path to enlightenment,” or the “graduated path of the three spiritual models.” As the source itself states: Understand there to be three spiritual models: the lesser, the intermediate, and the most excellent. The Sanskrit term for a spiritual model is puruṣa, which etymologically means “having capability,” and so the term “spiritual model of the teachings” is used in this context to refer to someone who has the capability to accomplish something meaningful for the next lifetime or even beyond that. In this tradition, at the outset the foundation for all three models lies in the teachings on how one relies on a spiritual mentor and how the opportunity and leisure to practice is difficult to gain, and so one begins with these. Then, as the exalted Nāgārjuna states: First there are teachings concerned with higher states of rebirth; later come those concerned with the definitive excellence of enlightenment. Why? Because once one has gained a higher state of rebirth, gradually one can come to that definitive excellence. Accordingly, the lesser spiritual model is that of those who rid themselves of fixation on this lifetime and are capable of making the moral choices of what to accept and what to reject for the sake of some happier state of existence for themselves in the future. As the main body of teachings in this path, there are four topics: impermanence, the shortcomings of the lower states of rebirth, [23b] the taking of refuge, and the effects of karma. The intermediate spiritual model is that of those who rid themselves of fixation on samsara in its entirety and are capable of engaging correctly in the three higher trainings for the sake of becoming liberated from it. From the perspective of approaches, this model comprises those of the śrāvaka Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 60 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 61 and the pratyekabuddha. From the perspective of what one meditates on, there are the four truths, interdependent origination, the obvious and subtle aspects of the identity of the individual, and so forth. The superior spiritual model is that of those who perceive the flaws of both conditioned existence and mere personal salvation and are capable of accepting the challenge of bringing all beings to the level of buddhahood. From the perspective of view, this is either the Middle Way or the Mind Only school. From the perspective of spiritual approaches, this model can be divided into the two approaches of sutra and tantra. Beginning with the arousal of bodhicitta, which is the distinctive feature of this path, the teachings deal with the way in which one engages in the conduct of the heirs of the victorious ones—that is, the general and specific points of training—as well as the results to which this leads. Generally speaking, the designation “three spiritual models” appears in a few sources, such as the Concise Definitive Conclusion and the commentary on the Treasury of Abhidharma. The stages of practical implementation are condensed from explanations found in the two Ornaments and the Categories of the Levels.70 In fact, all the teachings that were spoken in so excellent a manner by the Victorious One are subsumed within this path of the three spiritual models. The variant themes of mind training, or lojong, which constitute advice for mentally exchanging oneself with others, are primarily found in the Indian sources by the Lord Atīśa’s three gurus and are the quintessence of the practical implementation found in such texts as Entering the Way of the Bodhisattva and the Compendium of Training. This training is the fundamental theme for meditation on the path of the superior spiritual model—the consummation of the three models of the graduated path—and constitutes a remarkable way to enhance the relative aspect of bodhicitta and the meditative absorptions of loving-kindness and compassion. C. Lamdre In the case of the Lamdre tradition, the powerful lord among yogins Virūpa pursued a spiritual practice of the completion stage from the three tantras of the Hevajra cycle71 and condensed this into the source text of pith instructions,72 which became renowned as the Precious Speech Concerning the Path with the Result, a lineage imbued with four oral transmissions and authentic qualities. This tradition involves four ways of instructing students through three means of validation and four oral lineages. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 61 3/18/13 3:55 PM 62 The Catalog Of these, if we discuss instruction exactly according to the source,73 which is the most extensive basic treatise, [24a] to quote the great lord Sakyapa: The three states of appearances lay the foundation for the path; the three continua bring understanding of all practical implementation without exception. In accord with this statement, the three states of appearances are teachings that are held in common with the approach of the transcendent perfections and lay the foundation of the path: • Impure appearance involves meditating on the shortcomings of samsara, on the hard-won state of opportunity and leisure, and on conviction concerning the cause-and-effect process of karma; this completes the path of the śrāvaka approach. • Experiential appearance involves, for the more ordinary kind of practitioner, the cultivation of loving-kindness, compassion, and bodhicitta; this completes the path of the ordinary Mahāyāna approach. For the more extraordinary kind of practitioner, this involves meditation on the path of the Vajrayāna approach, in which one understands that all the inconceivable states of meditative and visionary experience that arise are subsumed within fifteen topics, so that when these arise one recognizes them and allows their natural expression. • Pure appearance involves being aware of the qualities of buddhahood in the context of the fruition state—the uninterrupted continuum of adornment and so forth—and the arousal of inspiration that one will oneself attain these qualities, so that one’s ongoing experience becomes refined through their cultivation in meditation. In the extraordinary path of mantra, at the outset one receives empowerment as the causal circumstance and upholds the samaya commitments entailed in the ground situation.74 As for the actual path of the three continua: • The causal continuum of the basis of all experience involves one being directly introduced to the view of the indivisibility of samsara and nirvana as the primordial unity of lucidity and emptiness and cultivating that in meditation. • The continuum of skillful method as the path in fact involves four successive paths connected to the four levels of empowerment: Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 62 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 63 u The path of the vase empowerment is that of the stage of development on the external and internal levels; having received empowerment in the context of the path, one meditates for four sessions in every twenty-four-hour period on the profound path that embodies the significance of that empowerment. u The path of the secret empowerment involves techniques using subtle energies and caṇḍalī. u The path of the empowerment of wisdom leading to timeless awareness involves the body of another as the “messenger.” u The path of the fourth empowerment is that of the “vajra waves”— that is, meditation on the threefold path of the stage of completion to usher in the anticipatory and actual states of timeless awareness. • Once one has meditated on these four paths, within the context of the mundane path, one experiences the four views (of the three essences and so forth). Within the context of the transcendent path, one reaches the four culmination states of attainment, and the resultant continuum of the fruition state of the five kāyas becomes fully evident. [24b] To summarize, one lays the foundation of the path with the three states of appearances; carries out the implementation of the main body of practice with the three continua; eliminates one’s false assumptions with fourfold authenticity and the four oral lineages; and delineates the levels of the path by means of the five factors of interdependent origination. When implementing the foregoing, by knowing the three situations in which the subtle elements gather, one becomes skilled in the seven pith instructions that are of benefit and in the methods for dispelling hindrances; and by pursuing the practice, one reaches the culmination of attainment. This is the process of instruction in the extensive treatment of the path. The intermediate treatment of the path involves five topics, while the condensed treatment of the path is subsumed within four categories. Given that any of the foregoing treatments are such that the fruition remains attainable within the context of the path, this tradition is renowned as Lamdre—the Path with the Result—because it reveals the significance of the inseparability of ground, path, and fruition. D. Marpa Kagyu As for the tradition of the Kagyupa, this refers to the veritable ocean of advice (primarily associated with the anuttarayoga class) that has been transmitted Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 63 3/18/13 3:55 PM 64 The Catalog by the mahāsiddhās who founded the schools based on the oral lineage they upheld, which Lord Marpa the translator had received as the tradition of the venerable Nāropa and Maitrīpa. Although these instructions are so limitless as to defy description, we may summarize them according to the emphasis on the topics of meditation into two categories: the path of skillful method (the Six Dharmas of Nāropa) and the path of freedom (Mahāmudrā). Both of these, however, are subsumed within three major “vajra themes.” To cite from the Clear Summary of the Five Stages and the Later Primer: The stages of the way in which things truly abide, the path, and the arising of the fruition state. That is to say, there is • the ground (the way in which things truly abide); • the stages for traversing the spiritual path; and • the way in which the fruition state is made fully evident. The true way of abiding, furthermore, has two aspects: the way in which things actually abide as the ground of being and the way in which things actually abide as this pertains to mind. Each of these, too, has three levels (the more obvious, the subtle, and the extremely subtle), which are taken as the basis for the refinement process. The path involves two aspects: maturation and liberation. Of these, one begins with one’s ongoing experience being matured through the empowerment process to some degree (ideal, middling, or lesser) based on one’s capacity as the recipient. Then, the teachings that liberate one concern the two stages of development and completion. [25a] A beginner implements the practice of these two alternately, but with familiarization one implements them simultaneously. In the stage of completion, moreover, one implements the practices of either the path of skillful method or that of freedom, which are the means that effect the refinement in accordance with the basis for that refinement process. The fruition entails more ordinary attainments (such as the ten indications of successful practice, the eight qualities, the four aspects of enlightened activity, and so forth), as well as the most sublime attainment (being endowed with the seven attributes of integration, the eight qualities of powerful mastery, the four kāyas, and the five aspects of timeless awareness). Depending on one’s particular good fortune and diligence, these attainments Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 64 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 65 may actually be gained in this lifetime or perhaps in the intermediate state after death. 1. The Path of Skillful Method As for the Six Dharmas, which constitute the path of skillful method, these are practical techniques that rely on such methods as the arousal of bliss to make fully evident the timeless awareness of Mahāmudrā that derives from these methods, and constitute a swift and profound path for those who are endowed with sharp acumen and diligence. They come from the tradition of the glorious Nārotapa.75 The primary bases on which they rely are summaries of the key points of enlightened intent that are specific to five tantric cycles—Cakrasaṃvara and Hevajra, Mahāmāya, Catuḥpītha, and Guhyasamāja—and that permeate the Kālacakra cycle in general. These practices are thus renowned as the path of skillful method associated with the tantras. In this regard, we read in the True Measure of the Authentic Word of the Buddha: Caṇḍalī, karmamudrā, illusory body, dream, utter lucidity, the intermediate state, the transference of consciousness, and transferring one’s consciousness into another’s body.76 In this regard, caṇḍalī is renowned as the root of the path, karmamudrā as the enhancement technique on the path, the practice of illusory body as the axis of the path, dream practice as the authentic measure of meditative warmth on the path, the practice of utter lucidity as the very core of the path, the practice of the intermediate state as the decisive factor on the path, the transference of consciousness as one’s escort on the path, and the practice of transferring one’s mind into another’s body as the means to bridge interruptions on the path.77 Of these, the practices of caṇḍalī, illusory body, dream, and utter lucidity are known as the four basic practices, constituting the profound path that makes fully evident, within a single lifetime, the state of primordial unity that requires no more training. For those of lesser good fortune, for whom these practices will not make the fruition state evident in this lifetime, the instructions are given for the practices of the intermediate state and the transference of consciousness, making for a set of six practices. Karmamudrā and the practice of transferring one’s consciousness into another’s body are auxiliary practices to Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 65 3/18/13 3:55 PM 66 The Catalog enhance one’s practice or bridge interruptions, so they are not counted separately in the grouping. The foregoing is the exegesis of Lord Gampopa and as such is universally espoused by those of the Dakpo Kagyu tradition. [25b] Lord Marpa subsumed these into what he termed the four corners of the teachings that bring awakening to buddhahood, while in the tradition of Ngok and his spiritual descendants, the essence of the Six Dharmas is condensed into the two processes of “blending” and “transference.” The venerable Mila sang of this as the direct introduction to the eight intermediate states; Tepupa explained this in terms of four pairs of eight practices; and Rechungpa spoke of it as the “three cycles of blending” or the “ninefold cycle of blending and transference,” and so forth. While there are numerous analyses and syntheses, the actual teachings are subsumed within the previous explanation. 2. The Path of Freedom As for the path of freedom, or Mahāmudrā, according to the tradition of this precious lineage there is a sutra-based model, in which the instructions speak of the object as the utter lucidity that is free of elaboration, and the subjective perceiver as the absence of any conceptual process; with these instructions, one rests in equipoise. And there is a tantra-based model, that of Mahāmudrā specifically characterized as “gaining contact with the innate nature”—that is, the unity of bliss and emptiness—through timeless awareness awakened during the empowerment process and intense focus applied to the key points of the vajra body. Of these two models, the latter conforms to what was described previously, whereas the former derives primarily from the tradition of the master Maitrīpa. In essence, Mahāmudrā is nondual timeless awareness, profound and lucid and permeating all of samsara and nirvana, imbued with seven special attributes. As for the derivation of the term, if we analyze the Sanskrit term mahāmudrā, mudrā (“seal”) means that all phenomena of the three situations of samsara, nirvana, and the spiritual path are such that they do not fall outside of this awareness, while mahā (“supreme”) indicates that there is no other thing superior to it; this is a compound term that combines these meanings. If we analyze this, there are three aspects: Mahāmudrā of ground, of path, and of fruition: Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 66 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 67 1. The ground is a “seal” because all phenomena of samsara and nirvana are such that they do not fall outside this, for freedom and confusion occur respectively due to the realization of or the failure to realize that very fact of the way in which things truly abide. It is “supreme” because other than that there is no other dharmakāya to be sought. 2. The path is a “seal” because even while one is undertaking spiritual practice, having been introduced directly through the guru’s pith instructions, all consciousness and objects of consciousness are such that they do not fall outside this. It is “supreme” because other than that there is no other timeless awareness of buddhahood to be sought. 3. The fruition is a “seal” because once the way in which the ground of being is present becomes fully evident with adventitious obscurations being refined away through the process of the path, the entire manifest display of the kāyas and timeless awareness is such that it does not fall outside the essence of this. [26a] It is “supreme” because it constitutes the consummate state of being. Regarding the innate nature, there are the two aspects of what is innate by nature and what is innate due to “melting bliss.” Of these, what is being referred to in the present context is not merely some speculative meditation on what is inferred after nothing is found at the conclusion of one’s investigation, but rather a path that is forged of the direct experience, free of concepts, of the unceasing unity of perceived appearances and mind, without the conceptual component of reifying that, so that one is brought into contact with that innate nature in its actuality. As Lord Gampopa stated: Mind, conceptual thought, and dharmakāya: these three are innate at the outset. Because through instruction one gains contact with these as one, wouldn’t you call this “gaining contact with the innate nature”? With respect to the practical implementation of such a path, as Tilopa said: Ah! This is self-knowing timeless awareness. Transcending any verbiage or terminology, it is not the province of mind. I, Tilo, have nothing whatsoever to show you. Understand it by pointing it out to yourself! Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 67 3/18/13 3:55 PM 68 The Catalog That is to say, once one has recognized one’s own true way of abiding, the perspective of the ground of being, one meditates on this path using what are known as the six teachings of Tilopa: Do not reflect. Do not contemplate. Do not examine. Do not meditate. Do not think. Just rest, utterly relaxed. To implement these in one’s practice amounts to what is identical in its significance to the cycles of Maitrīpa’s teachings on the “absence of any conceptual process.” In addition to this, the lord Gampopa relied on the Second Armor of Mahāmudrā, authored by the Noble Lord,78 and the instructional methods from the Kadam tradition. The fourfold preliminary practices ensure that meditation develops where it has not yet developed. The threefold process of direct introduction ensures that where it has developed, it is used as the path. Due to the methods for enhancing the practice and developing positive qualities, the issue of whether one is of excellent or lesser acumen is of no consequence; if one’s ongoing experience is refined by one’s immersion in the instructions, even those of lesser acumen are edified to the highest degree, for these are unsurpassable instructions that give one skill in the means to bring about the state of natural freedom. Of the followers of this tradition, the glorious Pakmo Drupa, as well as Jikten Sumgön of the Drigung school and his descendants, emphasized instructions on the Five Principles of Mahāmudrā.79 The glorious Karmapas matured and liberated people with instructions on “four key points of the ongoing cycle of the true nature of reality” and “direct introduction to the three kāyas.” [26b] In the glorious Drukpa Kagyu school, the upper branch of the Drukpa employ the “eight major instructions,” while the lower branch uses the “fivefold capability.” In the basic Kagyu tradition, instruction is given using the “path of the six cycles.” As the foregoing cases illustrate, there are limitless individual traditions associated with the four primary and eight secondary schools and their derivative lineages, and in each of these cases many of those to be guided have been brought to states of attainment. Given its vast display of methods, this tradition is entirely worthy of one’s complete confidence. E. Shangpa Kagyu In the case of the Shangpa Kagyu, in general terms the learned and acInterior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 68 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 69 complished master Khyungpo, who embodied five consummate attributes, received in its entirety the distilled essence of enlightened mind from some 150 learned and accomplished masters of the holy country of India, so that it was impossible to ascertain any finite number of what were renowned to be a limitless and unequaled array of methods. However, if these are summarized into categories, what developed was a threefold tradition, a graduated path that included theoretical teachings, debate, and practice. The latter consisted of five parts: the cycle of Niguma’s teachings, the cycle of Sukhasiddhi’s teachings, the cycle of Vajrāsana’s teachings, the cycle of Maitrīpa’s teachings, and the cycle of Rāhula’s teachings. Of these cycles, the primary one is the cycle of teachings from the ḍākinī of timeless awareness Nigupta,80 which for adherents of the Shangpa Kagyu lineage consists in its most extensive version of the “fifteen special instructions,” in its condensed version of the “instructions on the three bodies,” and in its extremely condensed version simply of the “natural freedom of deathless mind.” While these and other classifications exist, the Five Golden Teachings of Shangpa constitute the widely known tradition of a one-to-one transmission bearing a vajra seal. These are: • the Six Dharmas of Niguma as the root; • Mahāmudrā as the trunk; • the three means of maintaining ongoing awareness as the branches; • the white and red forms of Khecarī as the flowers; and • “unerring immortality” as the fruit. These instructions were set down as mnemonic manuals for visualization from the Vajra Verses of Vajradhara and the ḍākinī of timeless awareness, so that even the topics for visualization and the supplication prayers are like refined gold, not in any way altered, changed, adulterated, or corrupted by the minds of ordinary individuals. 1. Six Dharmas of Niguma The first of these is the set of Six Dharmas. As we read in the Vajra Verses: Having been matured through the four levels of empowerment, if those who are endowed with faith and diligence begin with impermanence, disenchantment, and an awareness of shortcomings as preliminaries Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 69 3/18/13 3:55 PM 70 The Catalog and then exert themselves on this sublime path, [27a] they will awaken to buddhahood in six months, or a year, or within this lifetime. That is to say, for individuals who have been matured through the conferral of an empowerment either into the five tantric classes (as described in the major tantra Ocean of Gems) or into the mandala of the glorious Cakrasaṃvara, and through their receiving the transmission of the respective blessings, the first practice to be undertaken is that of the “purifying factor of the empty framework of A.” They then primarily carry out four practices: the path of skillful method (called “the natural blazing of bliss and warmth”), illusory body (“the natural freedom of attachment and aversion”), the dream state (“the natural purity of compounded confusion”), and utter lucidity (“the natural awakening of mental dullness”). Through these practices, the distortions of the confusion experienced in four life situations are dispelled. The two practices of the transference of consciousness (“awakening to buddhahood without meditation”) and the intermediate state (“the sambhogakāya of the victorious ones”) are relegated to the status of auxiliary practices in the stages of meditation for those of lesser diligence and acumen, so that complete freedom is gained in one of the three phases of the intermediate state, depending on the different levels of acumen (ideal, middling, or lesser). 2. Mahāmudrā Concerning Mahāmudrā, the learned and accomplished Khyungpo so highly valued the vajra verses of instruction on the ultimate heart essence of being, a state in which any conceptual process is absent, that he placed a small scroll of these inside an amulet box of Nepalese origin, which he wore around his neck. These instructions thus became know as “Mahāmudrā of the amulet box”: • For the preliminaries, through the three states of utter relaxation81 one develops calm abiding and profound insight. • For the main body of practice, with the descent of the vajra state of timeless awareness, one is directly introduced through a stealthy approach and, by becoming free of four flaws in one’s natural state, one refines one’s experience of mind itself with great precision. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 70 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 71 • For the concluding phase, one maintains the context in which the three kāyas arise naturally. Through reliance on uncommon methods to enhance one’s practice and eliminate hindrances, the supreme seal of Mahāmudrā, which is the natural freedom of the four kāyas—the very core of what is presented in all the sutras and tantras, and the distilled essence of all pith instructions—becomes fully evident. 3. Three Means of Maintaining Ongoing Awareness One maintains ongoing awareness of all phenomena (visible, audible, or imaginable) as being of the nature of the guru, chosen deity, and illusoriness, incorporating these into one’s spiritual path by applying this key point. Thus, in a matter of mere months or years, the supremely blissful unity of lucidity and emptiness becomes the natural arising of the three kāyas. 4. White and Red Forms of Khecarī As for the forms of the transcendent and accomplished conqueror, the Vajra Queen, that bear the colors of the sun and moon, [27b] by one’s invoking them with the supplication prayers and the key points of visualization, caṇḍalī—the unity of bliss and emptiness—blazes in the four cakras due to the freedom from attachment that is associated with each of these places. With that as one’s working basis, one comes to experience Khecāra, the “enjoyment of space,” as the supreme state of primordial unity. 5. Unerring Immortality By performing the thirty-two physical exercises that ensure immortality, one utilizes one’s body on the path to liberation. Given that one’s own mind is primordially unborn, its immortality is ensured as a supreme state of natural freedom. The physical body as the natural consequence of karma, being an assemblage of inanimate matter, is devoid of any basis for assigning birth or death. In actual fact, even the body occurs simply as a manifestation of mind, so if one gains the indwelling confidence of realizing mind to be deathless, the manifestation of the body is that of Mahāmudrā in the form of the deity, as determined within basic space, without the error that is due to perceptions based on confusion. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 71 3/18/13 3:55 PM 72 The Catalog It is said that one can gain the kāya of primordial unity in this lifetime by receiving just a few of these instructions, and that merely hearing them will allow one to awaken to buddhahood in the intermediate state after death, as the sambhogakāya of the victorious ones. As we read in the Vajra Verses: For those who implement this most sublime of paths, without reference to any other time, but now or in the intermediate state, the inseparable unity of bliss and emptiness will arise naturally as the three kāyas so that they go to the totally pure realm of Khecāra. The cycle of teachings from the ḍākinī of timeless awareness Sukhasiddhi would seem to include simply two teachings: a set of Six Dharmas as the profound path of skillful method and “Mahāmudrā, the pure state of timeless awareness.” The sādhana practice that combines four deities is the instruction that comes from the mahāsiddhā Rāhula, while the profound teaching from Maitrīpa is that of the “swift-acting lord protector of timeless awareness.” It is evident that these are entirely transmissions based on authentic meditative experience and blessings. F. Zhije and Chö In the case of the tradition of Zhije (Pacification), according to the systems of instruction that came to Tibet, the meaning of the term Zhije derives from the emphasis placed in this tradition on causing the student to turn away from unvirtuous pursuits and on refining away the afflictive emotions in the ongoing experience of original mind. This process is one that in the short term pacifies the inferior physical states, factors contributing to illness, and so forth that are due to the force of previous karma, and so ensures that the practitioner can deal with and bear these. And so the specific name Damchö Duk-ngal Zhije (Sacred Teachings on the Pacification of Suffering) was applied to this tradition. It was applied on the basis of such references as that in the “Mother”: the mantra that utterly pacifies all suffering.82 [28a] and that in the most majestic of tantras: Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 72 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 73 It pacifies the pains of the three kinds of suffering. These are special instructions that combine into one the profound key points of all the sutras and tantras, for they are said to be “of the transcendent perfections in their essence, yet in accord with the mantra approach.” Generally speaking, the powerful lord among siddhās Dampa Sangye gained mastery over the meaning of the unborn sound of the Sanskrit vowels and consonants and, through inconceivable secret means,83 presented immeasurable avenues of teachings—through symbols, words, and meanings— to beings who were to be guided, according to their temperaments and levels of acumen, so that there was no single tradition to be systematized. He taught his students, however, in accord with his own life history, and they for the most part followed his example in three ways: (1) the working basis being that one was endowed with the three levels of ordination; (2) the path being the challenging one of ascetic practice; and (3) the result being conduct that benefited others. Dampa Sangye first formulated the Three Cycles of the Lamp of the Zhije Tradition, which summarized and presented the three higher trainings as these are implemented in a practical manner by those of lesser, middling, or ideal acumen. Three specific lines of transmission became renowned here in Tibet as the earlier, the middle, and the later line: • The first line of transmission was the “Kashmiri tradition,” which taught all the advice of fifty-four male and female siddhās, summarized into five key points as illustrated by five analogies. • The middle line of transmission included three traditions: those of Ma, So, and Kaṃ. u The Ma tradition involved a process of direct introduction through sixteen practical instructions that rely on the “lineage of ultimate meaning,” and a process of eliminating false assumptions through sixteen major points that rely on the “lineage of words.” u The So tradition involves a process of direct introduction to an ideal, middling, or lesser extent using three key points that are the means of resting the mind, and then a process of practical implementation using ten themes. u The Kaṃ tradition, although it began as a very extensive method of instruction, in later times seems to have continued simply as instruction on the meaning of the Heart Essence of the Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 73 3/18/13 3:55 PM 74 The Catalog • The later line of transmission was the tradition of the bodhisattva Kunga. It consists of pith instructions concerning Prajñāpāramitā (the “transcendent perfection of wisdom”), which are nevertheless in accord with the secret mantra approach—a direct introduction to the ultimate heart essence of being (through the conferral of this fundamental insight in one’s ongoing experience) adorned with the skillful method of the supreme principle of interdependent origination in its many ramifications. [28b] These are pith instructions for the practical implementation of all the Buddha’s teachings at one time, on a single meditation seat. With respect to the cycle of instructions for the practical implementation of the Immaculate Drop, this is subsumed within the following steps: • One begins with the conferral of the four levels of empowerment through symbols (an extraordinary process unique to this tradition), which matures the student’s working basis for the teachings where this has not previously been matured. • One proceeds through the strict parameters of the white, red, and black instructions, which causes meditative experiences to develop where these have not developed previously. • One forges one’s path of the guru’s blessings, which causes realization to arise where it has not arisen previously. • The assemblage of words causes the meaning to penetrate one’s mind, which eliminates conceptual elaboration where this has not yet been eliminated. As for the actual process of instruction, according to the pith instructions for seven complete meditation sessions, there are three alternatives: 1. For those of the highest acumen, the key point of beholding pure awareness in all its nakedness is the “white instruction,” causing them to awaken to buddhahood all at once through directly beholding the uncontrived way in which genuine mind truly abides, beyond dualistic consciousness. 2. For those of middling acumen, the key point of devotion as the single decisive point is the “red instruction,” in which the four kāyas are attained in leaps and bounds due to the refinement of the bindu of the three avenues of body, speech, and mind in equal measure, which perfects the path of the four kāyas of the guru. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 74 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 75 3. For those of lesser acumen, the key point of advice that defines issues precisely is the “black instruction,” since one gains the five paths successively. Of these three, the last involves the following: • Subsuming the eight topics of instruction on the external level of the dialectical approach in a single basic format, by practicing the five paths during a single session, one is elevated through one’s mental training to the path of accumulation. • By perfecting the five paths of the mother tantras, in which the motile factor of subtle energy is aroused and channeled, during a single session, one is brought into the strict confines of ascetic practice on the path of linkage. • By meditating during a single complete session on the four mudrās, the instructions on the experience of bliss from the mother tantras, one is ushered into the path of seeing. • Due to one’s meditating during a single complete session on the four yogas (or four states of meditative absorption), the instructions on the ultimate heart essence of being, one’s practice is enhanced through the equal taste of the path of meditation. • By meditating during a single complete session on the Six Branches of Union, the instructions on the natural freedom of pure awareness, one attains the path of consummation, free of anything more to be done. This method is the special teaching of Dampa Sangye, which had never existed before in India or Tibet. On the external level, it tears out the heart of the Three Compilations; [29a] on the internal level, it severs the aorta of the four classes of tantra; on the secret level, it opens the eye of ultimate heart essence of being; and on the level of thatness, it loosens the seal of secrecy imposed by the ḍākinīs. Thus, it constitutes the strict path of practice for implementing the limitless range of the Buddha’s teachings during a single meditation session, and it is adorned with the skillful method of the supreme principle of interdependent origination in its many ramifications. As we read in the Graduated Path by Zhikpo Nyiseng: The salt of the lineages of attainment in general, the great graduated path, the strict path of accomplishment, the united pith instructions of the sutras and tantras in general, this is indeed found in no other case: Ah! Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 75 3/18/13 3:55 PM 76 The Catalog As for the auxiliary tradition to this, that of Damchö Dukyi Chöyul (Sacred Teachings on the Māras as the Object of Severance), if the name is interpreted on the basis of supportive circumstances, this derives from the many classifications of conduct—such as secret conduct, the conduct of pure awareness, and so forth—as an enhancement of spiritual practice that are spoken of in the classes of anuttarayoga tantras, as well as what we read in the “Mother”: those who wish to engage in the conduct of the profound and transcendent perfection of wisdom should train in this way. Since this tradition constitutes the practical implementation of the meaning found in these sources, the related name “sphere of activity” was applied. If the name is interpreted from the perspective of antidotes to counterproductive circumstances, in the context of the cause-oriented approach of the transcendent perfections, the four truths are paired with respect to the choices one makes of engaging in what one accepts or turning away from what one rejects. Because this tradition involves integrating the truths of suffering and its all-pervasive origin into one’s spiritual path, it constitutes the practical implementation of the profound key points of meditation as a countermeasure and the “equal taste” of things, and this is implied in the name “Māras as the Object of Severance.” In this name, the meaning of the term severance (Tib. gcod) is as explained in the brahmin Āryadeva’s small source text: Because this cuts through to the very root of mind, cuts the root of the five poisons as afflictive mental states, serves as the cause of meditation as the consummation of view, and cuts off all naïve hope, fear, or resistance to conduct that is daunting, severance is used as the definitive term. As for the meaning of the term object (Tib. yul), because the afflictive states that are to be cut off develop through the mind focusing its attention on unsuitable objects, the advanced practitioner focuses intently on these objects, so that the habitual reactions are aroused, and then cuts them off in the immediacy of that very moment. Of four mainstream transmissions of the Indian teachings of this tradition that flourished in Tibet, the two lineages from Padampa Sangye were those Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 76 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 77 of the “male line of Severance” and the “female line of Severance”; [29b] it is the latter that nowadays has spread everywhere. And this is primarily a lineage of the meditative experience of the accomplished master Machik herself, who gained freedom on the basis of the Buddha’s word. The source of the view is the Prajñāpāramitā, while the specific skillful methods are distinctively those of the mantra approach, and so this tradition is held to blend the realization of the sutra and mantra approaches. The overview of the path of this tradition is stated in the sutra titled the Compendium: Due to four causal factors, the bodhisattvas are endowed with powerful skill. It is difficult for the four māras to challenge them, for these cannot perturb them. They abide in emptiness, yet do not in any way forsake ordinary beings. They act according to whatever is taught and are imbued with the blessings of sugatas. That is to say, this is the practical implementation of some four themes found in these teachings: (1) the view of abiding in emptiness; (2) the compassion of not forsaking beings in any way; (3) the discipline of bodhisattvas, acting according to whatever the Buddha taught; and (4) the blessings conferred by sugatas. 1. As for the view of abiding in emptiness, initially one eliminates the belief that the mind-body aggregates that are included in one’s ongoing experience constitute a self, and then abides continually in the meaningful experience of a lack of any identity, without one’s mind focusing on any notion of subtle traits being associated with anything associated with other beings in one’s objective perception. 2. With respect to not forsaking beings in any way, one embraces the path to enlightenment and with a sense of great compassion turns away from conduct that harms beings, feeling a special love for those with material form (such as the afflicted, the sick, and so forth), while also not indulging in maliciously seeking to harm those without material form (such as gods and demons). 3. To act according to whatever is taught means to eliminate frivolous behavior and arouse bodhicitta—the motivation toward enlightenment—so that one does not act in ways that contradict the pledges associated with that. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 77 3/18/13 3:55 PM 78 The Catalog 4. To be blessed by sugatas means that, having taken refuge, one prays with fervent devotion to one’s primary gurus and those of the lineage. With the foregoing as a basis, at the outset of one’s practical implementation of these instructions, one receives the empowerments that are unique to this tradition, which render one a suitable aspirant. [30a] As for the main process of instruction, for all branches of this tradition—the sutra method, the mantra method, the methods blending the realizations of sutra and mantra, and so forth—the general format is to begin with the preliminary exercise unique to this tradition, that of reinforcing positive factors on the physical level and driving home the vital point of blessings invoked through devoted supplication. Then, for the main body of practice, through pursuing pure awareness and pure awareness alone, one seeks out the hidden flaw of ordinary mind. Having become involved in a methodical approach, one is shown the means of resting the mind. Through the process of “opening the doorway to space,” the meaning of the “mother” is directly introduced. In formal meditative equipoise, one maintains the experience of one’s own true nature—indescribable, inconceivable, and inexpressible—attaining dharmakāya in a single session. In postmeditation awareness, according to the Great Bundle of Precepts: The entanglements of material objects have been cut off; the entanglements of nonmaterial mind have been cut off; the entanglements of fixations due to excess enthusiasm have been cut off. The māras are divided into four groups; these are, however, subsumed in the māra of complacency. As this passage states, with the four māras having been cut off through one’s being freed from the dualistic frameworks of hope and fear, of acceptance and rejection, whatever has proved difficult to cut off has nevertheless been cut off by one’s crushing it without hesitation. Applying oneself to a structured practice of sessions in frightening environments, one frequents those environments armed with the instructions, so that when any and all of one’s reactions are provoked, one blends basic space and pure awareness and uses the visualizations for casting out one’s body as food—the white feast, the red feast, the variegated feast, and so forth—alternating peaceful methods with wrathful ones. With this, one experiences concepts of good versus bad as having an equal taste, so that one puts an end to gods and Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 78 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 79 demons outwardly and the belief in a self inwardly in light of the absence of any such identity. In the shorter term, one completes the process of annihilating these, while in the final analysis one gains the three aspects of indwelling confidence, which in itself constitutes a perfecting of the paths and levels as a natural consequence. G. Jordruk As for the Vajrayoga, the hidden meanings that are implied with vajra words in the condensed versions of such anuttarayoga tantras as those of Cakrasaṃvara and Hevajra are presented clearly in that of the glorious Kālacakra. In all the extensive source tantras, such as the Sublime Original Buddha, the profound meaning that they present directly with a single intent is that of the sublime yoga of Mahāmudrā, known as the Six Branches of Union. This is the unsurpassable point to which one can go as the consummation of the entire stage of completion. [30b] As for the way in which one becomes involved in this path, in the Stainless Light the Transcendent and Accomplished Conqueror speaks of threefold confidence with respect to this mantra approach: Initially, at a certain point one has confidence in the tantra, then confidence in the guru, and then confidence in oneself. It is through these three that the path to completely perfect buddhahood is thoroughly finished. As this passage states, it is because one is endowed with this threefold confidence that this becomes the totally pure path that brings one closer to the most sublime state of accomplishment. In this regard, what are to be accomplished are the vajras of the three secrets and of the timeless awareness of tathāgatas, those gone to suchness. The Six Branches of Union, which ensure this accomplishment, are listed in the source tantra of the Kālacakra: Withdrawal, meditative stability, channeling subtle energy, and furthermore retention of it, recollection, and meditative absorption: these are held to be the Six Branches of Union. These are similar to what is also described in the Subsequent Tantra of the Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 79 3/18/13 3:55 PM 80 The Catalog Gathering of Secrets and the Vast Range of Ḍākas. With respect to the way in which the practices are accomplished, they are accomplished it is through the four phases of approach and accomplishment. That is to say, if we consider the combining of the preliminaries and the main body of practice (as these are specific to the completion stage) as constituting the completion of a single set of the four phases of approach and accomplishment, the following proves to be the case: 1. Since the preliminary stage of fourfold disregard lays the foundation for the deity’s form, it constitutes the phase of approach 2. In the main body of practice, the branches of withdrawal, meditative stability, channeling subtle energy, and retention constitute the phase of intimate approach. 3. Recollection of desire through the four mudrās constitutes the branch of accomplishment of the bliss of supreme unchanging desire. 4. Meditative absorption constitutes the branch of supreme accomplishment, since it ensures that the kāya of timeless awareness is actually accomplished. If we consider the actual way in which this accomplishment is gained: • The two branches of withdrawal and meditative stability are the yoga of the essence of the vajra principle of enlightened form; they refine the central subtle channel and bring accomplishment of vajra form in all its aspects. • The channeling of subtle energy and retention are the yoga of the vajra principle of enlightened speech; channeling energy brings the subtle energies of the lateral rasanā and lalanā channels into the central channel, while retention causes these to become stabilized, bringing accomplishment of vajra speech in all its aspects. [31a] • Recollection is the yoga of the vajra principle of enlightened mind; due to one’s reliance on the four mudrās, the bodhicitta that has been melted is maintained free of dissipation, bringing accomplishment of vajra mind in all its aspects. • Meditative absorption is the yoga of the vajra principle of timeless awareness; that selfsame bliss is integrated inseparably with rūpakāya, bringing accomplishment of vajra timeless awareness—the primordial unity of bliss and emptiness—in all its aspects. Alternatively, it is also said that the two branches of withdrawal and meditative stability are the phase of the accomplishment of total recall; the Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 80 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 81 two of the channeling of subtle energy and retention are the phase of the accomplishment of subtle energy; recollection is the phase of the accomplishment of bliss; and meditative absorption is the phase of the accomplishment of suchness. With respect to these branches, when the Oral Transmission of Kālacakrapāda says: one should understand that each and every one has six . . . the former masters of this lineage have interpreted the meaning implied in explaining each branch through a set of six topics: (1) the meaning of the term, (2) the appropriate time for that meditation, (3) the branch as a method of meditation, (4) the authentic indications of one’s having meditated, (5) an analysis of what is purified and what purifies, and (6) the result that is gained through meditation. These branches can also be subsumed within threefold virtue. Vajragarbha speaks of the two branches of withdrawal and meditative stability as the path that is virtuous at the outset; the two of channeling subtle energy and retention as the path that is virtuous in the interim; and the two of recollection and meditative absorption as that path that is virtuous in the final outcome. In general, the teachings of our Teacher in their entirety are virtuous at the outset, in the interim, and in the final outcome. From the point of view of this consummate stage of definitive meaning, however, meditation based on conceptual thinking, or the bliss of karmamudrā practice being considered to be the ultimate state, or meditation on emptiness as the nonconceptual state reached at the conclusion of mental investigation are neither exceptionally virtuous (since they can be characterized as causes of samsara), nor do they constitute, respectively, the mandala of ultimate reality or supreme bliss or true emptiness. In this path, there is virtue at the outset, since initially it brings accomplishment of empty forms as the mandala of ultimate reality; there is virtue in the interim, since later on it brings about the cessation of the subtle energy of karma, which is the cause of discursive conceptual thinking; and there is virtue in the final outcome, since it brings about accomplishment of the unchanging ultimate state of bindu. [31b] And there is virtue in all three stages of the outset, the interim, and the final outcome, since this path entails the perspective of authentic timeless awareness, a nonconceptual state that precludes mental investigation; for the meaning of virtue here is identified as bliss and its attendant causes. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 81 3/18/13 3:55 PM 82 The Catalog Thus what is virtuous at the outset brings accomplishment of the meditative absorption of extraordinary calm abiding and profound insight. The initial stage of what is virtuous in the interim blends subtle energy and mind in its earlier stages, and the later stage opens the gates of the cakras. What is virtuous in the final outcome ensures the accomplishment of the changeless kāya of timeless awareness. Through the use of these six branches as yogic practice, at first one is imbued with a partial glimpse of vajra timeless awareness; then step by step one gains the complete blessing of the “vajra flow,” so that visionary experiences and significant perceptual indications arise. One’s mind abides as a matter of course in a nonconceptual state, while there occur physical sensations of shaking and trembling and verbal experiences of uttering various sounds. When one allows the natural expression of these, the blockages of the three avenues of body, speech, and mind are gradually released. Finally, the three factors of masculine energy, feminine energy, and subtle motile energy are purified within the six cakras, so that the kāya of timeless awareness of the victorious ones of the six families is accomplished. H. Dorje Sumgyi Nyendrup Concerning the tradition of Dorje Sumgyi Nyendrup (Stages of Approach and Accomplishment of the Three Vajras), we may cite the Gathering of Secrets: Consider your mind as like your body, your body as like your mind, your mind as like something uttered in words. The instructions of this tradition are unique, for in the context of the ground of being, a connection is determined—that the three vajras cannot be divided from one another—and in the context of the spiritual path, one meditates on the yoga of the indivisible vajra state so that, in the context of the fruition state, the three vajra secrets are made fully evident. According to the Vajra Verses: Through the refinement of the subtle channels, the body is purified of distortions; through the refinement of the subtle energies, the speech is purified of distortions; Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 82 3/18/13 3:55 PM Identification of Teachings 83 through the attainment of the state without dissipation, the habitual tendencies of ordinary mind are overcome. The blockages of the cakras are eradicated though the progression of the four degrees of joy. One wakes from the sleep of nonrecognition through coming back out of unconsciousness. The mind that is free of desire and in which faintheartedness and aversion are exhausted gains freedom in supreme bliss through the purification of desire. The meaning of the lines cited is as follows: 1. In the branch of approach, which purifies the body and the subtle channels, the causal factor of the yoga that utilizes the key points of the body is withdrawal, and its result is meditative stability. [32a] One comes to a definitive conclusion through the Three Compilations. 2. In the branch of accomplishment of the vajra principle of enlightened speech, which purifies the speech and the subtle energies, with the vajra mantra repetition as the preliminary step, the causal factor is the channeling of subtle energy, and its result is retention. One comes to a definitive conclusion through four factors: these two branches, their effects, and the result that they accomplish. 3. In the branch of supreme accomplishment of the vajra principle of enlightened mind, which purifies the mind and bindu, the branch of recollection presents completion of the mundane phase of the spiritual path in any of three ways: ideally by reliance on caṇḍalī, in middling cases on one’s own body, and in lesser cases on the body of another. The branch of meditative absorption, which presents completion of the transcendent phase of the path, entails the mind abiding one-pointedly in the bliss of pure self-knowing awareness—the nonduality of both aspects of supreme bliss, that which is conceptually structured and that which is unstructured. On the external level, then, one secures all bindu of the refined essence that is subject to loss. By thus implementing the yoga of the three vajras in the correct manner, one gains the fruition of the three kāyas—the state purified of the three levels of obscuration with their three internal subdivisions—in this one lifetime, in this one body. Thus, the traditions of the paths of these lineages of accomplishment, which can be summarized as the foregoing eight lines of transmission, were the foremost traditions in the land of Tibet and have been so considered Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 83 3/18/13 3:55 PM 84 The Catalog from the point of view that they all constitute complete paths. There are, however, a great many minor traditions, such that a classification of their historical origins and instructions would be too much to document. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 84 3/18/13 3:55 PM As for the enumeration of the teachings that are contained in the collection, these constitute the heart essence of the primary sources of the eight great mainstream lineages of accomplishment—the most profound vital essence of the teachings that mature and liberate, together with the cycles of minor teachings and the transmissions that support these—gathered together in a single collection, the volumes of which comprise ten major sections, equal in number to the directions. These sections are those of: (1) the Early Translation school of the Nyingma, (2) the Kadam, (3) the Lamdre, (4) the Dakpo Kagyu, (5) the Shangpa Kagyu, (6) the Zhije and Chöyul traditions, (7) the Jorwa Yenlak Drukpa, (8) the Dorje Sumgyi Nyendrup, (9) the cycles of minor teachings, and (10) the 108 Instructions of Jetsun Kunga Drolchok (which are supports for all the foregoing). [32b] A. Nyingma The profound Dharma that came to Tibet during the early spread of the teachings84 comprises that of the three yogas. 1. Mahāyoga Of these, in the cycle of the mahāyoga teachings are found the following: • Concise Path by Buddhaguhya;85 • Garland of Views86 by the precious master;87 • Rays of Sunlight, a commentary on the foregoing;88 • ‘Mamos’ Sphere of Activity; 89 and • the essential manual of instruction on the Heart Essence of Magical Illusion, by the omniscient Drime Özer.90 IV Enumeration of Teachings Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 85 3/18/13 3:55 PM 86 The Catalog 2. Anuyoga The cycle of the anuyoga teachings contains the following: • Four Stages of Yogic Practice by Dewa Saldze;91 • instruction on innate meditation extracted from the Discourse on the Gathering; 92 and • Illuminating the Profound Path, a manual of instruction for Stirring the Pit, 93 both by Lochen Dharmaśrī. 3. Atiyoga In the atiyoga teachings, there are three categories: of mind, expanse, and direct transmission. a. Category of Mind First, the outer cycle of the Category of Mind (Tib. sems sde) contains the following: • the thirty-seventh chapter from the tantra the All-Creating Monarch, including interlinear notes;94 • vajra songs of the eighteen texts of the Category of Mind;95 • Meditation on Awakened Mind: Smelting Gold from Ore, a treatise on the heart essence by Mañjuśrīmitra;96 • ritual of empowerment into the dynamic energy of pure awareness, the means for direct introduction to the enlightened intent of the eighteen “mother and child” texts of the Category of Mind, by the Katok master Moktön Dorje Palzang;97 • Precious Ship, the essential manual of instruction for the All-Creating Monarch, by the noble Longchen Rapjam;98 • manual of instruction according to the Nyang tradition, by Sokdokpa Lodrö Gyaltsen;99 • supplication prayer to the lineage by the same author, with supplementary verses by Minling Terchen;100 • manual of instruction according to the eastern Tibetan tradition, by the Katok master Namkha Dorje;101 and • manual of instruction according to the Aro tradition, by Zhamar Kachö Wangpo.102 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 86 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 87 b. Category of Expanse Second, the inner cycle of the Category of Expanse (Tib. klong sde) contains the following: • the fourth chapter from the tantra the Supremely Vast Range of the Great Expanse, including interlinear notes;103 • source for the Vajra Bridge, with associated pith instructions and personal advice, taught by Bairotsana;104 • summary of the Condensed Bridge in a single meditation session;105 • Garland of Meditative Experience from the Precious Lineage of Oral Teachings; 106 and • Garland of Precious Advice, a song sung to illustrate the benefits and advantages of bodhicitta through six analogies.107 [33a] • an extensive arrangement of the methods for meditation, a practical application of the guru’s blessing;108 and • Opening the Eyes of the Fortunate, the practical application of the instructions on meditation, known as “the distilled essence of Ola Jose poured into the vessel that was Gyagom,” a manual concerning the stick used as a support in meditation, by Chenga Chökyi Drakpa.109 c. Category of Direct Transmission Third, the secret cycle of the Category of Direct Transmission (Tib. man ngag sde) contains the following: • Legacies of the Buddhas: The Quintessential Keystone of the Category of Direct Transmission in the Great Perfection Approach of Utter Lucidity, 110 comprising: u the first legacy, Joyous; 111 u the second legacy, Display of Secrecy; 112 u the third legacy, Fallen on Vulture Peak; 113 u Ornament of the Visions of Utter Lucidity, 114 a commentary on the preceding; u Three Statements That Hit on the Vital Points, 115 by Garap Dorje; u Six Meditative Experiences, 116 by Mañjuśrīmitra; u Seven Nails, 117 by Śrīsiṃha; and u Four Means of Resting, 118 by Jñānasutra. • Web of Purity, the elaborate empowerment ritual from the Innermost Drop of the Guru cycle;119 • tables of names for the elaborate empowerment;120 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 87 3/18/13 3:55 PM 88 The Catalog • Massing Clouds of Twofold Spiritual Development, a ritual for offering a mandala;121 • Web of Gems, the unelaborate empowerment ritual;122 • Manual of Key Points: The Meaning of the Symbolism of the Vase; 123 • Massed Clouds of Blessings: Bringing Down the Aspect of Timeless Awareness; 124 • Web of Lotuses, the extremely unelaborate empowerment ritual;125 • Mandala Offering Adorned with the Four Continents; 126 • Web of Light, the utterly unelaborate empowerment ritual;127 • mandala offering in five groups of five;128 • Wish-Fulfilling Ocean, the stages for offering a ritual feast;129 • Oral Transmission of Vimala: Manual of Instruction That Unites in a Single Mainstream the “Mother and Child” Cycles of the Heart Drop Teachings; 130 • empowerment for the secret cycle of the Great Perfection teachings;131 • commentary on the preceding, including the empowerment ritual, by Longchen Rapjam;132 and • Precious Golden Garland, a manual of instruction for the Innermost Drop of the Ḍākinī according to the tradition of Padma.133 As an auxiliary component, there are texts that I included out of consideration for the continuity of the instruction lineages: • essential instructions on the three aspects of virtue, the three topics of the Great Perfection cycle Resting at Ease in Mind Itself; 134 • from the miscellaneous works of Longchenpa, the cycles renowned as the “Three Cycles of Natural Freedom,” which are: Great Perfection: Natural Freedom in Mind Itself; 135 • Great Perfection: Natural Freedom in the True Nature of Reality; 136 and • Great Perfection: Natural Freedom in Equalness; 137 [33b] • Ornament of the Manifest Display of Samantabhadra, a ritual honoring the gurus of the lineage of the Heart Drop teachings;138 and • the authorization ritual139 for the seven classes of Ekajāṭi, guardian of these teachings, extracted from the Vase Yielding All Wishes collection.140 B. Kadam The precious Kadampa tradition that derived in turn from the teaching tradition of the Noble Lord, the glorious Atīśa, has three branches: primary sources, advice, and pith instructions. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 88 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 89 1. Primary Sources • The main text, Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment, authored by the Noble Lord;141 • a commentary on the foregoing, Utterly Clear Illumination of the Path to Enlightenment; 142 • the graduated path according to the tradition of Gampo, authored by Tokden Kachö Wangpo;143 • Quintessence of Nectar, a manual of instruction on the graduated paths of the three spiritual models, authored by Jetsun Tāranātha;144 • Verses on the Concise Meaning of the Graduated Path, authored by the Precious Lord Lozang Drakpai Pal;145 • a supplication to the direct lineage of blessings, authored by the Precious Lord;146 • Refined Gold, instruction on the graduated path authored by Gyalwa Sönam Gyatso;147 • Blissful Path That Leads to Omniscience, a definitive instruction on the graduated path authored by Paṇchen Lozang Chökyi Gyaltsen;148 • Practical Means of Implementing the Graduated Path, authored by my lord guru;149 • an extension of the foregoing, Main Pathway to Enlightenment, a ritual for the arousal of bodhicitta according to the Middle Way tradition of the Mahāyāna approach;150 and • Noble Path of the Bodhisattva, a ritual for the arousal of bodhicitta according to the tradition of extensive conduct in the Mahāyāna approach, authored by my lord guru Jamyang Khyentse.151 2. Advice • The source verses for the Seven Points of Mental Training by Ja Chekhawa Yeshe Dorje, together with interlinear notes; • the complete catalog as clearly set forth in the collection known as the One Hundred Teachings on Mental Training, in which are brought together the crucial texts of Indian and Tibetan origin on mental training in the Mahāyāna approach, as compiled by the teacher Sempa Chenpo Zhönu Gyaltsen (also known as Könchok Bang) and his student Muchen Könchok Gyaltsen;152 [34a] • a manual of instruction on mental training authored by Gyalse Tokme;153 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 89 3/18/13 3:55 PM 90 The Catalog • Seeds of Benefit and Happiness: Concise Summary of the Practical Implementation of the Seven Points of Mental Training, authored by my guru Jamyang;154 • Easy for Lesser Minds to Apply, a manual of instruction on the seven points of mental training arranged in a way that is easy to implement practically;155 • the lineage supplication for the preceding text;156 and • an aspiration prayer, Seeds of Lasting Happiness. 157 3. Pith Instructions • A Bodhisattva’s Garlands of Gems, source verses for the precious volumes of secret teachings; • the empowerment ritual for the “Sixteen Spheres”;158 • Concise Summary of the Practical Implementation of Meditation and Mantra Repetition; 159 and • Sublime Gift of Twofold Attainments, a manual of instruction authored by my precious lord guru.160 4. Auxiliary Texts • The manual for the authorization rituals of the FourDeities of the Kadampa, extracted from the Sources of Riches collection of the Jonang tradition and arranged as rituals to be recited aloud;161 • Uniting the Quintessence of Sutra and Tantra: Manual of Instruction for the Four Deities of the Kadampa; 162 • the source verses for Three Principles of the Spiritual Path, the basis for the title “New Kadampa,”163 authored by the Precious Lord, Lozang Drakpa;164 and • Direct Access to Liberation for the Fortunate, an explanation of the preceding that is concise and easy to understand.165 5. Associated Topics • Main Path of Victorious Ones, Mahāmudrā teachings of the Geden school166 by Paṇchen Lozang Chökyi Gyaltsen, together with his elucidation of the work;167 • Heart Essence of Nectar, instructions in the view of the Middle Way by Mangtö Ludrup Gyatso;168 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 90 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 91 • Immaculate Light Rays of the Vajra Moon: Instructions in the View of the Middle Way of Qualified Emptiness; 169 • Ocean of Auspicious Renown: A Ritual Honoring the Gurus of the Graduated Path to Enlightenment; 170 and • newly arranged versions of the authorization ritual for Kartarīdhara, the guardian deity of these teachings.171 C. Lamdre The foremost instructions of those masters of the teachings of the secret mantra approach, the glorious Sakyapa, are that of the Lamdre (the Path with the Result), together with the “cycles concerning the path.” These instructions consist of three categories. 1. Primary Sources In the first category are the primary sources for the Lamdre teachings, which include the following texts: • Vajra Lines; 172 • annotated summaries of these lines;173 • the primary source concerning the inseparability of samsara and nirvana, composed by Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen;174 [34b] • Instruction Manual for Jochak, which provides guidance precisely according to the primary source;175 • an annotated commentary in verse summarizing the meaning of more detailed commentaries;176 • another text in verse;177 • a summarizing commentary in verse by Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo;178 and • Explication for Nyak, an annotated commentary on the source the Vajra Lines. 179 2. Empowerments The second category is that of the empowerment that matures—the causal empowerment in the “pith instruction” tradition of Hevajra—which includes the following texts: Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 91 3/18/13 3:55 PM 92 The Catalog • the sādhana,180 mandala ritual,181 and the torma ritual,182 all by Ngorchen Könchok Lhundrup; and • the practical instructions for conferring the empowerment, arranged for recitation by Ngorpa Pönlop Jamyang Loter Wangpo.183 3. Instructions The third category is that of the instructions that liberate. The texts included are: • the supplication to the lineage of Lamdre;184 • Clarifying All the Hidden Meanings, an instruction manual by the glorious Lama Dampa Sönam Gyaltsen that exactly elucidates the path of the extensive lineage;185 • Path Concealed and Explained, of the direct lineage186 and • the instruction manual for the extremely direct lineage entitled Clarification of the Meaning through Symbols, both by Dakchen Dorjechang Lodrö Gyaltsen (this latter text is also known as the Six Branches of Union187 according to the Hevajra tradition);188 • notes by Taklung Tangpa Rinpoche on the instructions according to Pakmo Drupa’s tradition of Lamdre;189 • instructions on the three aspects of purity as the enlightened intent of the explanatory tantra Vajra Pavilion, by Chögyal Pakpa, also known as the commentarial tradition of Lamdre without the source text);190 • the supplication to the lineages of the “eight later cycles of the path” by Ngorchen,191 with supplementary verses;192 • Ensuring the Innate State, by Ḍombi Heruka;193 • the Indian source of instructions concerning the glorious Hevajra called “like the tip of a candle flame,” by the master Padmavajra, and the instructions on the nine profound modes of the stage of development and those of the stage of completion “like the tip of a candle flame” by Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen);194 • instructions composed by Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen for Complete Path of Caṇḍalī, by Kṛṣṇācārya;195 • the history of the pith instructions of master Ucitāmara for “straightening the crooked” subtle channels, subtle energies, and bindu, including further instructions, by Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen;196 [35a] • an elucidation by Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen of Teaching Received in Front of the Stupa (authored by the glorious protector, the exalted NāgārjuInterior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 92 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 93 na, and also known as Pith Instructions for Coming to a Decision about Mind);197 • pith instructions by Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen on Mahāmudrā without Letters,composed by the master Vāgīśvarakīrti;198 • the Indian source on the stages of the pith instructions of Inconceivable, by the master Kuddāla (this includes the history of these instructions, an annotated summary, and an elucidation of the instructions, all by Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen, and instructions concerning the five ways of quashing misfortune);199 • instructions concerning the path of the mudrā consort, composed by the master Indrabhūti, together with an elucidation of the source text by Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen;200 • eight instruction manuals that elucidate the foregoing source texts;201 and • the instructions known as the spiritual connections with the six gatekeepers, which are the pith instructions of Śāntipa’s Practical Methods Blending Sutra and Tantra, Nāropa’s Dispelling the Three Kinds of Suffering, Vāgīśvakīrti’s Clear Recollection of the Genuine State, Prajñākaragupta’s Guarding against Obstacles Due to External Negative Forces, Jñānaśrī’s Removing Obstacles Due to Disturbances of the Body’s Elements, and Ratnavajra’s Guarding against the Mental Obstacles to Meditative Absorption. 202 An auxiliary section to the foregoing includes the following texts on Parting from the Four Attachments: • the supplication to the lineage by Ngorchen, together with supplementary verses;203 and • the history, source verses,204 and instructions in verse on Parting from the Four Attachments by Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen;205 • the prose commentary by Sakya Paṇḍita;206 • the notes by Nuppa Rikzin Drak;207 • the instruction manual by Kunga Lekrin;208 and • the means for explaining the teachings by Ngawang Lekdrup, entitled Necklace of Ketaka Gems. 209 Also included are the ritual composed by Chöje Kunga Chöpel honoring the gurus of Lamdre,210 and the manual for the authorization ritual for the practice of the eight-deity mandala of the guardian of the teachings, Pañjaranātha, extracted from the Source of Jewels collection.211 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 93 3/18/13 3:55 PM 94 The Catalog D. Marpa Kagyu The advice that derives from the Kagyu lineage of Lord Marpa—the great translator and emanation of Hevajra who was the ancestral figure for the teachings of the lineage of accomplishment—falls into two categories: the cycles of primary sources and commentaries on these, and the developmental stages of instruction. [35b] 1. Primary Sources The first category includes the more common cycles associated with Mahāmudrā and the uncommon cycles associated with the Six Dharmas. a. Mahāmudrā In the first cycle are found the following texts: • the glorious tantra Unsullied State; 212 • Dohā for the People by the Great Brahmin;213 • the summary of the foregoing by Barpuwa;214 • the pith instructions of Śavaripa concerning the quintessential meaning;215 • Ganges Mahāmudrā by Tilopa;216 • the structural outline and commentary on the foregoing composed by the omniscient Rangjung Dorje;217 • Concise Words on Mahāmudrā by Nāropa;218 • a short, easy-to-understand commentary on the foregoing by my lord guru, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo;219 • Ten Stanzas on Suchness by Maitrīpa;220 • the source verses of Marpa’s song “Creating No Concepts”;221 • Lord Mila’s Shedding Light on Timeless Awareness; 222 and • Gampopa’s Single Sufficient Path. 223 Although it would seem that there are about two volumes of Indian sources for the Mahāmudrā teachings (primarily the works in the Sevenfold Collection of Accomplishment),224 for all of which the lineage of reading transmission still exists, here I have included only a sample of those texts that are particularly relevant to this tradition. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 94 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 95 b. Six Dharmas The second cycle includes the following: • the speech of the ḍākinī of timeless awareness entitled Standards for Authentic Teachings; 225 • Vajra Verses of the Oral Lineage, the word of the victorious one Vajradhara,226 and a short commentary on the foregoing, Analyzing the Vajra Verses; 227 • two “primers,” a longer one and a shorter one, on the Six Dharmas; 228 • pith instructions on the Six Dharmas by Tilopa;229 • Nāropa’s vajra song on the Six Dharmas;230 and • the venerable Mila’s Three Cycles of Clarification: The Oral Lineage. 231 2. Stages of Instruction The second category, concerning the developmental stages of instruction, includes two sections: the empowerments that mature practitioners and the instructions that liberate them. a. Empowerments With respect to the first section, in this tradition the fundamental process for maturing practitioners relies on either the masculine or the feminine aspect of the Cakrasaṃvara cycle. And though all schools within the tradition are alike in emphasizing the methods of Nāropa, those methods comprise both an extraordinary version from the oral lineage and the many more-common versions that derive from the various Kagyu schools. From among these, in this collection are included, by way of a generic format, the sādhana and mandala ritual for the empowerment into the five-deity cycle of Cakrasaṃvara according to the tradition of the Dakpo Kagyu, authored by Tashi Namgyal.232 b. Instructions The second section includes both the fundamental instructions, which derive from the cycles of the oral lineage, [36a] and the manuals that derive from the individual schools of the Kagyu. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 95 3/18/13 3:55 PM 96 The Catalog I) Oral Lineage The first set of instructions includes: A) The extensive cycle, which derives from the oral lineage of Rechungpa, containing the following texts: • the short source by Tilopa;233 • the more common manual Wish-Fulfilling Gem; 234 • the Six Dharmas, which bring total liberation through the “upper gateway”;235 • the physical exercises for the path of skillful means;236 • “supreme bliss through the lower gateway”;237 • Supreme Bliss: Luminous Pure Awareness; 238 • Four Letters of Mahāmudrā; 239 • a word-by-word commentary on the foregoing;240 and • a supplication to the oral lineage and Heart Essence of the Wish-Fulfilling Gem, the graduated path of this lineage, by my lord guru.241 B) The intermediate-length cycle, which derives from the oral lineage of Ngamdzong, contains ing the following texts: • the primary source, Three Cycles of Tseringma; 242 • the Mahāmudrā instructions Shedding Light on Timeless Awareness; and • Direct Introduction to the Secret of “Shedding Light on Timeless Awareness,” the latter deriving from the oral lineage of Zurmang.243 C) The shorter cycle, which derives from the oral lineage of Dakpo, containing the following texts: • the mnemonic source text of pith instructions;244 • the sources for the “nine cycles of the disembodied ḍākinī,” instructions from the lord Rechungpa that derive from the oral lineage of Zurmang;245 • the instructions that derive from the oral lineage of Rechung;246 and • the pith instructions Four Scrolls of Heard Instructions that were conferred on Tsurtön by the lord Marpa.247 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 96 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 97 II) Individual Schools The second set of instructions includes the following texts from the individual schools that branched off from the Dakpo Kagyu: A) Dakpo Kagyu From the primary tradition of the Dakpo Kagyu:248 • two texts by Dakpo Tashi Namgyal, Shedding Light on the Suchness of the Supreme Secret, a major instruction manual on the profound path of the Six Dharmas,249 and Shedding Light on the Suchness of the Genuine State, a major instruction manual on Mahāmudrā;250 • a concise summary of the Four Dharmas of Dakpo Rinpoche;251 • Engraved Teachings on Accomplishment, by Tashi Namgyal;252 and • teachings that derive from the oral lineage of Zurmang, the instruction on mind Wish-Fulfilling Gem253 and the transference of consciousness known as “the ultimate state of entering the city.”254 B) Tsalpa Kagyu From the tradition of the Tsalpa Kagyu,255 lord protectors of beings: • Consummate Sublime Path of Mahāmudrā, composed by Kyeme Zhang Rinpoche;256 • the preliminaries and main practice of Mahāmudrā meditation entitled Great Wrathful Goddess; 257 and • notes summarizing the meaning of the “sealed” teachings, by the fifth Zhamar.258 C) Kam. tsang Kagyu From the cycles of teachings in the Kaṃtsang Kagyu,259 lineage of accomplishment, there are: • works composed by the venerable and omniscient Rangjung,260 that is, Instruction Manual on Merging with the Innate State of Mahāmudrā, 261 themes for understanding the Six Dharmas,262 and Molten Gold: Six Dharmas; 263 [36b] Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 97 3/18/13 3:55 PM 98 The Catalog • works composed by the ninth lord Karmapa, Wangchuk Dorje, that is, the source verses of a general outline of the teachings on Mahāmudrā, the innate state,264 and Pointing Out Dharmakāya, an instruction manual on Mahāmudrā;265 • liturgies for the preliminary practices of Mahāmudrā, which derive from the oral tradition;266 • a concise and essential instruction on the deity for the stage of development associated with Vajrayoginī, composed by Pawo Tsuklak Trengwa;267 • notes on the outer sādhana, composed by Tsuklak Gyatso;268 • the source text Nonduality of Subtle Energy and Mind, by the venerable Rangjung;269 • an instruction manual concerning the foregoing, composed by the great translator Tsewang Kunkhyap;270 • Distilled Nectar, an instruction manual concerning the Six Dharmas, composed by the sixth Zhamar, Chökyi Wangchuk;271 • Direct Introduction to the Three Kāyas, composed by the lord Rangjung Dorje;272 • further instructions on Direct Introduction to the Three Kāyas, composed by the fourteenth lord Karmapa, Tekchok Dorje;273 • Nāropa’s Five Nails to Dispel Hindrances; 274 • Four-Session Guru Yoga, composed by the eighth lord Karmapa, Mikyö Dorje;275 • the stages of visualization for the foregoing,276 and • notes on Short Supplication to Vajradhara, both by Karma Chakme.277 D) Zurmang Kagyu From the Zurmang Kagyu,278 the instruction manual for Mahāmudrā by Drung Mase Lodrö Rinchen;279 and Dharma for Mountain Retreat: Garland of Precious Gems, by Drung Kunga Namgyal.280 E) Nedo Kagyu From the Nedo Kagyu,281 a summary of the quintessential practice integrating Mahāmudrā and Dzokchen— the definitive instruction on Mahākaruṇika that was conferred on the merchant Bulu by the learned and accomplished Karma Chakme.282 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 98 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 99 F) Pakdru Kagyu From the primary teaching cycles of the Pakdru Kagyu,283 advice on Mahāmudrā by Drogön Pakmo Drupa.284 From among the “four pairs,” that is, the eight secondary schools:285 G) Drigung Kagyu286 From the glorious Drigung school: • the source text of Sacred Teaching on the Single Intent, together with a supplement and a thematic outline;287 • a concise overview of Sacred Teaching on the Single Intent; 288 • Wish-Fulfilling Gem, an empowerment using a torma for the Five Principles of Mahāmudrā;289 • verses on the Five Principles of Mahāmudrā by Lord Dharmakāra;290 • an instruction manual on the Five Principles of Mahāmudrā by the fifth Zhamar;291 • the completion stage for the four aspects of the unsurpassable innate state;292 and • advice that summarizes the Six Dharmas (the last two works are by the glorious Chökyi Drakpa).293 [37a] H) Taklung Kagyu294 From the Taklung Kagyu, Wish-Fulfilling Gem, an instruction manual on Mahāmudrā and the Six Dharmas by Taklung Tangpa Chenpo.295 I) Tropu Kagyu296 From the Tropu Kagyu, an instruction manual on the Five Principles of Mahāmudrā297 and an instruction manual on the “four syllables.”298 J) Drukpa Kagyu299 From the Lingre Kagyu (that is, the glorious Drukpa school): • instructions on the preliminaries and main practice of Profound Teaching: Merging with the Innate State of Mahāmudrā; 300 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 99 3/18/13 3:55 PM 100 The Catalog • notes summarizing the Six Dharmas;301 • the hidden treasure teaching of the Indian source on “equal taste,” that is, Spiritual Song on Conduct; 302 • instructions on the “six cycles of equal taste,” composed by Khachöpa;303 • a summation of the intent of “equal taste”;304 • a graduated meditation on interdependent origination;305 • the Indian source text on guru sādhana;306 • the more ordinary and extraordinary versions of the profound path;307 • Lovely Adornment of the Eight Primary Instructions; 308 • the eight secondary instructions;309 • a summary of the practical application of seven spiritual exercises310 (the majority of the foregoing texts are by Pema Karpo); • instructions on the “fivefold capability” of Lo Repa;311 and • advice on the six “mother” practices of the quintessential teachings for mountain retreat by Gyalwa Yangönpa.312 From the profound teachings of the lord Barawa Gyaltsen Palzang:313 • the meditation-based empowerment for Mahāmudrā;314 • the preliminaries for Merging with the Innate State of Mahāmudrā; 315 • the source verses for the foregoing;316 • the short source text;317 • the manual of key points;318 • instructions on direct introduction;319 • the “vajra source” on the Six Dharmas;320 and • a quintessential outline summarizing the profound hidden treasure of the lord Lodrö Chöpel, a guru sādhana combined with Mahāmudrā and the Six Dharmas.321 There is also a ritual honoring the gurus of the Kagyu tradition in general,322 as well as authorization rituals for the guardians of these teachings— the four-armed Mahākāla (according to the tradition of Ga Lotsāwa) and Dhūmavātī—together with the texts associated with these practices.323 E. Shangpa Kagyu The glorious Shangpa Kagyu tradition consists primarily of the oral teachings of two ḍākinīs of timeless awareness, powerful masters of the tenth Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 100 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 101 level of realization.324 Its cycles of advice are of three types: the source texts (the Vajra Verses and commentaries), the empowerments and blessings that mature practitioners, and the instructions that liberate them. 1. Sources In the first case, there are the cycles of vajra verses and their respective commentaries for the Six Dharmas (the root),325 Mahāmudrā (the trunk),326 the techniques for integrating experiences with the spiritual path (the branches),327 and the “deathless state” (the fruit);328 and the sources for Khecarī (the flowers).329 2. Empowerments In the second case, there are works of Zhalu Choktrul330 that present the two transmissions of blessings that “open the doorway”;331 two transmissions of blessings that “provide an overview”;332 [37b] six transmissions of blessings that serve as the “central axis” of the tradition;333 and the conferral of blessings for the “later mainstream transmissions.”334 There are works by Jetsun Rinpoche Tāranātha concerning the five-deity mandala of Cakrasaṃvara, including the liturgical description,335 the mandala ritual,336 the gaṇapūja ritual,337 and the detailed explanation of the sādhana.338 There is also the sādhana of the concise practice of the principal deities of the five tantras by Jetsun Rinpoche,339 as well as the abbreviated mandala ritual340 for this practice and the manual for intensive retreat, Profound Essential Meaning. 341 3. Instructions In the third case, there are the following texts: • A Gathering of Every Essential Instruction, a manual of key points of instruction for the Six Dharmas;342 • instructions on “Mahāmudrā of the locket,”343 instructions on the three techniques for integrating experience with the spiritual path,344 instructions on “deathless body and mind,”345 instructions on the inseparability of the guru and the protective deity,346 and supplications to both the extensive and the direct lineages, with reference to the Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 101 3/18/13 3:55 PM 102 The Catalog locations associated with the lineage figures (the foregoing texts were authored by the powerful lord of siddhās Tangtong Gyalpo); • Profound Meaning That Covers the Plains, a manual of instructions for the Six Dharmas;347 • Supplementary Text to the Main Course of Instruction, a supplement to the mainstream instructions;348 • the source verses concerning the physical exercises (the foregoing three texts were authored by the venerable Jetsun Drolwai Gönpo);349 • Wisdom Dakini’s Oral Transmission, a manual of instructions for applying the Six Dharmas in a single session;350 • a manual of instructions on “Mahāmudrā of the locket” by Jetsun Rinpoche;351 • Untying the Central Channel’s Knot, the practical methods concerning the white and red forms of Khecarī;352 • verses in praise of the white Khecarī, by Dīpaṃkara;353 • ancient instruction manuals on the transference of consciousness based on the white and red forms of Khecarī;354 • Indian sources for the cycle of teachings concerning Sukhasiddhi;355 • Rain of Great Bliss, a supplication to the lineage of the Six Dharmas of Sukhasiddhi;356 • Rapid Path to Integral Union, a manual of instructions on these Six Dharmas;357 • Radiant Wisdom, a manual of instructions for the sādhana combining four deities;358 • Naturally Luminous Wisdom, the practical methods for the foregoing sādhana;359 • Blazing Light of Blessing, the vajra verses for recitation to begin and end practice sessions for the Five Golden Teachings;360 • Wide, Untangled Vajra Knot, the source verses for these teachings;361 • Wish-Fulfilling Jewel, a ritual honoring the gurus of the Shangpa Kagyu;362 • Descent of Great Bliss, a supplication to the lineage;363 • the authorization rituals for the ḍākinīs of the five classes according to the Shangpa tradition;364 • a newly reworked version of the thirteen major transmissions for the swift-acting lord protector of timeless awareness;365 • the transmission of blessings366 and instructions367 for the practice of the lord protector known as “entering the heart center”; [38a] • the authorization ritual for Kṣetrapāla;368 and Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 102 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 103 • the torma ritual for the six-armed protector,369 together with supplementary texts.370 F. Zhije Chöyul The cycles of Damchö Duk-ngal Zhije (Sacred Teachings on the Pacification of Suffering) are of two types: the actual teachings and the auxiliary teachings. 1. Actual Teachings In the first case, there are three further sections: the scriptural sources, the empowerments, and the instructions. a. Sources The first section includes: • fragments of the tantra Inconceivable Secret, together with commentarial annotations;371 • the cycle of pure silver from the stainless path;372 • the cycle of pure gold;373 • the cycle of pure crystal;374 • the eighty verses of personal advice to the people of Dingri;375 and • the vajra song sung to the lord Milarepa, together with its structural analysis.376 b. Empowerments The second section consists of the following texts: • from the initial line of transmission, the empowerment for the threefold lamp from the Kashmiri tradition377 and the authorization rituals for three deities;378 • from the intermediate line of transmission, the empowerment for Mahāmudrā from the tradition of Ma,379 the transmission of blessing for the guru from the tradition of So,380 and the authorization ritual for the deity Prajñāpāramitā from the tradition of Kaṃ;381 and • from the final line of transmission, the extensive empowerment for the volumes concerning the five paths from the tradition of Dampa KunInterior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 103 3/18/13 3:55 PM 104 The Catalog ga,382 the transmission of blessing for Dampa entitled Conferral of the Master of Interdependent Connection, 383 the empowerments for twelve sugatas “resting in meditation,”384 the authorization ritual for the lord protector Aghora,385 and the authorization rituals for the realm-born ḍākinī Kunturika and Norbu Zangpo386 (the foregoing works were authored by Lochen Dharmaśrī). c. Instructions The third section contains the following texts: • the supplication entitled Golden Garland; 387 • Distilled Nectar, a collection of manuals of instructions for the three lineages of transmission of Pacification (first, intermediate, and final), by Lochen [Dharmaśrī];388 • a manual of instructions for the five paths of Pacification, by Nyedo Sönam Pal;389 • the thirty prayers of aspiration of Dampa;390 • the thirteen prayers of aspiration by Kunga;391 and • a ritual honoring the gurus of the Zhije tradition.392 2. Auxiliary Teachings The auxiliary cycles of teachings for Chö, or Severance, are also contained in three sections: the primary sources, the empowerments that “open the doorway,” and the stages of instructions. a. Sources The first section contains: • the major scriptural source in verse by the brahmin Āryadeva;393 • Pure Honey, the commentary on the foregoing by Drungsa Rupa;394 • Machik’s Great Bundle of Precepts, with a structural analysis and commentary by the venerable Rangjung Dorje;395 [38b] • a “further bundle” of Machik’s answers to questions;396 • the “inner bundle,” the source of the teachings;397 • the “eight ordinary appendices”;398 • the “eight extraordinary appendices”;399 • the “eight special appendices”;400 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 104 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 105 • Precious Treasure Trove to Enhance the Original Source “Hair Tip of Wisdom”; 401 and • the primary source Heart Essence of Profound Meaning. 402 b. Empowerments The second section contains the torma empowerment from the Zurmang tradition, together with the notes by Jetsun Rinpoche403 on the empowerment according to the Gyaltang tradition.404 c. Instructions The third section includes: • the manual of instructions on the Object of Severance authored by the venerable Rangjung Dorje;405 • the notes entitled Crystal Mirror and notes on practicing in a mountain retreat,406 by Tokden Tenzin Namdak; • Essence of the Key Meaning, a manual of instructions according to the Gyaltang tradition based on the final line of transmission, authored by Jetsun Rinpoche;407 • Rain of All That Is Wished For, instructions on Severance authored by Könchok Yenlak;408 • an arrangement of liturgies for the “gift of the body” and “feeding” from the writings of Chakme Rinpoche;409 • activities for group rituals in the Zurmang tradition of Severance, arranged by the fourteenth Gyalwang Karmapa,410 including auxiliary texts;411 • ceremony for the offering and gift of the body;412 and • the explanatory notes on the foregoing.413 G. Jordruk The Vajrayoga tradition is the consummate profound path taught as identical in spirit to the enlightened intent of such extensive source tantras as that of Kālacakra, the glorious and sublime original buddha. The cycle of these teachings has three sections: the scriptural sources, the empowerments that mature, and the instructions that liberate. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 105 3/18/13 3:55 PM 106 The Catalog 1. Scriptural Sources The first section includes the following texts: • Quintessential Tantra of Kālacakra; 414 • Oral Transmission of Kālacakrapāda, pith instructions on the Six Branches of Union;415 and • the short treatise of Śavari,416 together with its commentary.417 2. Empowerments The second section contains: • the sādhana for the nine-deity mandala of Kālacakra;418 • the ritual for honoring the foregoing;419 and • the preliminaries to the descent of the vajra state of timeless awareness, together with the means for conferring the three extraordinary “sublime empowerments”420 (the foregoing texts were authored by the venerable and omniscient Tāranātha). 3. Instructions The third section includes: • Meaningful on Sight, a manual of instruction for the Six Branches of Union;421 • a manual of the signs of successful practice and a manual of the authentic measure of practice;422 • ways to dispel hindrances423 (the foregoing texts were authored by Jetsun Rinpoche);424 • a manual of instruction for practicing these techniques in a single session;425 • Drops of Nectar on the Profound Path426 and Unfolding Excellence of the Lineage Holders, a supplication, both authored by Rikzin Tsewang Norbu;427 [39a] • a liturgy for the preliminary practices authored by the lord Pema Nyinje Wangpo;428 • Vajra Rain, a supplication to the lineage;429 • Ascertaining the Essence of Yoga, a text from the tradition of the Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 106 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 107 mahāsiddhā Anupamarakṣita, known as the intermediate version of the Six Branches of Union;430 • Analyzing the Vajra Lines, the instructions on the foregoing authored by the venerable Pema Karpo;431 • the source text of advice on “placing the tip of the tongue against the palate,” the concise version of the techniques;432 • Short Path of the Vajra Holder, the instructions on the foregoing by Pema Karpo;433 • a commentary on the physical exercises;434 • the authorization ritual for the connate form of Kālacakra435 and the meditation practice and mantra repetition for the foregoing;436 • the guru yoga for the Kalkī rulers;437 and • the torma empowerment for Vajravega, together with the manual associated with this.438 H. Dorje Sumgyi Nyendrup The tradition of Dorje Sumgyi Nyendrup (Stages of Approach and Accomplishment of the Three Vajras) was actually conferred by Vajrayoginī on the learned and accomplished Orgyenpa in the city of Dhūmathala. The source texts consist of: • the treatise on the path of skillful means conferred by the ḍākinīs of the four families;439 • the vajra song of aspiration;440 • Wish-Fulfilling Gem, the explanatory commentary concerning the stages of approach and accomplishment;441 • the liturgies for the preliminary rituals;442 • the manual of instructions on the stages of approach and accomplishment443 (the foregoing texts were authored by Dawa Senge); and • the Heart Drop teachings for meditating on the stages of approach and accomplishment as a complete session of practice, authored by Drukpa Pema Karpo.444 I. Minor Instructions The ninth group of teachings consists of the cycles of miscellaneous works of instructions that derive from various traditions.445 These include: Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 107 3/18/13 3:55 PM 108 The Catalog 1. The various texts and transmissions of blessings for the eighty-four mahāsiddhās. Although some three distinct traditions of these teachings were brought to Tibet, it seems that there was some controversy that caused learned ones with the discerning eye of the dharma to have misgivings about these. From among these three, it would seem that the Indian source for the tradition of the scholar Vīraprabhāsvara included here (as translated by Menyak Lotsāwa Möndrup Sherap) can be verified as authentic, and that the transmission of blessings for this tradition also included here (which is according to the methods set down by Jetsun Kunga Drolchok and is the tradition of the gurus of India, uncorrupted by some more generic format of authorization rituals) can be taken as reliable. And although there is definitely a specific transmission of blessings for each of the siddhās, while the method included here (that of conferring all of these in a single transmission) is intended to simplify the process, it is not simply my own invention. [39b] Rather, I have written out an arrangement of this practical method, having received explicit permission to do so from my lord guru Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, according to the advice conferred on him by the mahāsiddhā Lavapa.446 Also included are: • a ritual honoring the eighty-four siddhās;447 • a guru yoga according to the Indian tradition;448 and • a manual of instruction for the Six Dharmas associated with these siddhās, together with some ancient sources.449 2. The cycle of teachings renowned as the “six instructions of Mitra,” these constitute the oral lineage of pith instructions from Mitrayogi, the mahāsiddhā of Yerpoche, which are profound teachings that were received as his personal transmission by the great scholar Śrīputra. These teachings include both empowerments and advice. 1. Empowerments In the first case, the following texts are included: • the empowerment for Mahākaruṇika Jinasāgara;450 • the authorization ritual for the foregoing;451 • the authorization ritual for the wrathful red Hayagrīva;452 • the individual authorization rituals for five deities: Mañjughoṣa,453 Vajrapāṇi,454 Amitāyus,455 Tārā,456 and Jambhala;457 and Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 108 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 109 • the authorization ritual for the guardian of these teachings, Draklha Gönpo.458 2. Advice In the second case, the texts are: • a concise collection of the biographies of those in the lineage;459 • the vajra verses concerning the graduated path of Avalokiteśvara, translated from the Sanskrit by the scholar Śrīputra;460 • Flow of Nectar, a text combining the stages of approach and accomplishment with the empowerment ritual for Avalokiteśvara;461 • Banquet of Nectar, a manual of instruction for the graduated path to enlightenment based on Avalokiteśvara;462 • Golden Wand of Pith Instructions, instructions on meditation topics for the foregoing;463 • Adorning Wheel of Timeless Awareness That Causes Wisdom to Flourish, instructions on enlightened form, based on Mañjuśrīghoṣa;464 • Vanquisher of the Hordes of Maras, instructions on enlightened mind, based on Vajrapāṇi;465 • Accomplishment of the Deathless Vajra Body, instructions on enlightened qualities, based on Amitāyus;466 • Liberation from the Crevasse of Samsara: Instructions on the Activity Ritual That Grants Protection from the Eight Fears, instructions on enlightened activities, based on Tārā;467 • Rain of Accomplishments, instructions on Jambhala;468 • Reservoir of Blessings, a supplication to the lineage of the graduated path469 (the foregoing texts were authored by Öpak Dorje); • a torma ritual of Draklha Gönpo authored by Drakpa Rinchen;470 • the manual for the authorization ritual of the form of Avalokiteśvara called Finding Ease in the Nature of Mind; 471 • the source text for Finding Ease in the Nature of Mind, spoken by Avalokiteśvara to the mahāsiddhā Mitrayogi, including Direct Introduction to the Quintessential Essence, Cherished Essence, Thirty Biographical Verses, and Quintessential Summary of the Commentary on the Main Source, [40a] my lord guru’s word-by-word explanation of the foregoing;472 • the sources of the teachings on Finding Ease in the Nature of Mind found in scriptural citations from the sutras and tantras, by Butön;473 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 109 3/18/13 3:55 PM 110 The Catalog • notes on these instructions, authored by Jamyang Khyentse Wangchuk;474 • a song of experience based on these instructions, by Losel Tenkyong;475 • the method of explaining these instructions, by my lord guru;476 • the supplication Connecting with Locations; 477 • the source on the three quintessential topics that is the thorough instruction for Avalokiteśvara according to the tradition of the mahāsiddhā Mitrayogi, together with pith instructions, comprising the source text of vajra verses,478 and a supplication to the lineage;479 • Chariot of Sublime Accomplishment, a concise method for practice;480 • Essential Liturgies; 481 • the supplication to the lineage of the thorough instruction according to the Tsembu tradition, authored by my lord guru; • the manual of instruction authored by Khyenrap Chöje; • an extensive structural analysis of the foregoing; • a quintessential summation of the practice methods of the stages of development and completion; • an extremely concise format for practice by my lord guru;482 • a supplication to the lineage of the thorough instruction according to the Kyergang tradition;483 • a concise summation of the liturgies for the foregoing;484 • a supplication to the lineage of the Lakṣmī tradition;485 • a concise summation of the liturgies for the foregoing (the last four texts were authored by my lord guru);486 • the instructions for the foregoing by Pema Karpo;487 • a supplication to the lineage of the bodhisattva Dawa Gyaltsen’s tradition;488 • the quintessential practice for the foregoing;489 • a supplication to the lineage of the king’s tradition, authored by Minling Lochen;490 • a concise summation of the practice for the foregoing by my lord guru;491 • the source text for the Tangtong Gyalpo tradition of practice based on the six-syllable mantra, together with a clarifying commentary;492 • a supplication prayer for the foregoing;493 • advice on the guru yoga practice from the direct lineage of Tangtong Gyalpo;494 • a manual of instruction for the foregoing;495 • Oral Transmission of the Accomplished Master, a manual of instruction Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 110 3/18/13 3:55 PM Enumeration of Teachings 111 for Mahāmudrā according to the tradition of the omniscient Bodongpa;496 • the liturgies for the preliminary practices of the foregoing;497 • a supplication to the extensive lineage of “profound lucidity”;498 • a manual of instruction for the seven-day practice of caṇḍalī according to the tradition of Rechen Paljor Zangpo;499 • the threefold liturgies of the preliminary practices;500 • Innermost Essence of Profound Meaning, a manual of instruction for Sutra-Based Severance of the Sage; 501 • personal instructions on the “red feast”;502 • notes on the instructions for visualization;503 • Accomplishment through Recitation, the liturgies for the foregoing;504 [40b] • Rechen Paljor Zangpo’s instructions on the transference of consciousness, together with the history of these teachings and further advice;505 • the source text for the cycle of advice on the transference of consciousness that the great Rongtön bestowed on his mother, together with appendices;506 • Hook That Draws the Fortunate to Liberation, an instruction on the transference of consciousness;507 • a newer translation by Jonang Jetsun Tāranātha of the instructions that constitute the source of the seven modes of personal transmission,508 and the Indian treatise in 150 verses that constitutes the yoginī Dīnakara’s summation of the treatise by the mahāsiddhā Śāntigupta;509 • a manual of instruction for the foregoing, based on notes of Jetsun Rinpoche’s teachings as recorded by Gyaltsap Yeshe Gyatso;510 • a supplication to the lineage of the Seven Modes of Personal Transmission;511 • the five stages of advice on extracting the vital essence of flowers;512 • advice on extracting the vital essence of water;513 and • the oral lineage of extracting the vital essence of stones and flowers, arranged as a combination of liturgy and instruction.514 As for the teachings that are positive in the end: • an authorization ritual for the white form of Amitāyus according to the tradition of Mitrayogi;515 • Tepupa’s direct lineage of the seven-day practice of a sādhana for longevity;516 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 111 3/18/13 3:55 PM 112 The Catalog • an authorization ritual for Uṣṇīṣavijayā;517 • a ritual for making one thousand offerings to Uṣṇīṣavijayā, authored by Jetsun Rinpoche;518 • an authorization ritual for the Bari tradition of the white form of Tārā;519 • Soothing Beams of Longevity, instructions for the practice for longevity based on the foregoing;520 • a concise summary of the practical methods;521 • an authorization ritual uniting the three deities of longevity in one practice, with a ritual for honoring the three deities of longevity, authored by my precious lord guru Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo.522 J. 108 Instructions of the Jonang Tradition The tenth523 group of teachings, which serves as the support for all the foregoing, is that found in the volume 108 Instructions of the Jonang Tradition, arranged by Jonang Jetsun Jamgön Drupai Pawo Kunga Drolchok Losal Gyatsö De.524 The following texts are included: • the basic supplication to the lineage of the 108 Instructions, by Kunga Drolchok, to which a supplement has been added;525 • an account of the authentic origins of the 108 Instructions; 526 • a manual of historical accounts of the individual instructions, supplemented by Jetsun Rinpoche;527 • the ordinary and extraordinary preliminary practices;528 • the source texts of the 108 profound instructions;529 • Key to Marvels, an overview of the 108 Instructions;530 • a record of the titles of the 108 Instructions;531 [41a] and • the methods for conferring the empowerments for the texts of the 108 Instructions,532 authored by Zhalu Choktrul Losal Tenkyong.533 Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 112 3/18/13 3:55 PM There are nine headings under which I summarize the lineage successions from which the foregoing teachings derive.534 A. Nyingma In the first place, of the cycles of teachings from the Early Translation school of the Nyingma, even the lineages of textual transmission for the Concise Path, the Garland of Views, and the Mamos’ Sphere of Activity are rare, to say nothing of the lineages of word-by-word explanation. Nevertheless, my precious lord guru, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, received the transmissions of these teachings from genuine teachers who held the unbroken essential lineages for them. The underlying basis that exemplifies the first of the seven great modes of personal transmission that this lord himself received consists of the extensive lineages of the eight great mainstream traditions of accomplishment. He thus conferred on me the reading transmissions, explanatory instructions, and authorization rituals as a direct lineage. In fact, witzh respect to all of the more ancient texts that are mentioned below, all the lineages that I received should be regarded as following this same format, that is, having been received through the grace of my lord guru Khyentse. The way in which the lineage for the essential manual of instruction on the Heart Essence of Magical Illusion by the omniscient Longchenpa was transmitted from the author himself is as recorded in the record of teachings received by the Great Tertön (revealer of hidden treasure teachings) of the Mindroling tradition.535 From Gyurme Dorje himself, the transmission passed down to Rinchen Namgyal, Śrīnātha, Jikme Lingpa, Jangchup Dorje, Chökyi Lodrö, Rikpai Dorje, Khen Padmavajra, Kunkhyen Dorje Ziji, and from him to me. V Lineage Successions Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 113 3/18/13 3:55 PM 114 The Catalog As for Four Stages of Yogic Practice by Dewa Saldze, my lord guru himself graciously recommended that it be included at this point in the collection, but the text has proved to be unavailable. If it is ever located, it should be inserted here. Concerning the instruction on innate meditation extracted from the Discourse on the Gathering, the way in which this was transmitted conforms to that of the Mindroling tradition, while from the Great Tertön it passed, in succession, to Dharmaśrī, Rinchen Namgyal, Orgyen Tenzin Dorje, Trinle Namgyal, Rikzin Paljor Gyatso, Jikme Ngotsar, Orgyen Chemchok Palgyi Dorje, Gyalse Rikpai Dorje, Khen Damchö Özer, and Kunkhyen Lama Dorje Ziji Tsal, from whom I received it. An alternative lineage is that of the maturing empowerments and liberating instructions that the Katok master Drao Chöbum received from Śākyamitra (a holder of the Zur lineage), and that passed down through successive generations in the eastern region of Tibet to the vajra holder Pema Sangak Tenzin, from whom I received it. [41b] As for the outer cycle of the Category of Mind in the Great Perfection approach, the lineage for the thirty-seventh chapter extracted from the tantra the All-Creating Monarch accords with that found in Minling Terchen’s record of teachings that he received. It then passed to Sungtrul Tsultrim Dorje, Tsultrim Gyaltsen of Bönlung, Tukse Tenzin Gyurme, Sungtrul Ngawang Kunzang Dorje, Tukse Gyurme Chokdrup Palbar, Sungtrul Tenzin Drupchok Dorje, Khenchen Orgyen Tenzin, Zichen Trinle Namgyal, Jetsun Trinle Chödrön, and the omniscient Gyurme Tenzin Pelgye Palzangpo, from whom I received it. As for the small text of annotations to the preceding, as well as the vajra songs of the eighteen texts by masters of the Category of Mind and Smelting Gold from Ore, these were transmitted to me through the grace of the precious lord Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. The lineage for the empowerment into the dynamic energy of pure awareness, the means for direct introduction in a radical manner to the enlightened intent of the eighteen “mother and child” texts of the Category of Mind, which is conferred on the basis of the manual written by the Katok master Moktön Dorje Palzangpo, began with dharmakāya Samantabhadra and passed to the sambhogakāya (the victorious ones of the five families), the nirmāṇakāya lord of secrets Vajrapāṇi, the master Garap Dorje, the “twenty-one learned ones,” the translator Bairotsana, Yudra Nyingpo of Gyalmorong, Jñānakumāra of the Nyak clan, Sokpo Palgyi Yeshe, Sangye Yeshe of the Nup clan, Yeshe Gyatso of the Nup clan, Sherap Chok of the Nyang clan, Yeshe Jungne of the Nyang clan, Zurchen Śākya Jungne, Zurchung Sherap Drak, Kyotön Śākya Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 114 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 115 Yeshe, Dropukpa Śākya Senge, Drogön Dampa Śākya Gyal, Khepa Chetön and his spiritual son, Chetön Zunge, Setön Tashi, Lama Tangtön Bumye, Chöje Lakyap Dorje, [42a] Drinchen Khepa Chenpo, Khandro Palgyi Yeshe, Machik Drinchen Zurmo, Zurham Śākya Jungne, Zurmo Gendun Bum, Śākya Shenyen of the Zur clan, Khedrup Drao Chöbum, Shenyen Könchok Zangpo, Dorje Zangpo of Katok, Dorje Namgyal of Darlung, Lodrö Palden Pangtön Karma Guru, Jatang Kunzang Paljor, Rikzin Trinle Lhundrup, and Lochen Chögyal Tenzin, who transmitted it to Terchen Gyurme Dorje. (The manner in which many lineage transmissions were brought together by this master can be learned from his record of the teachings he received.) From the Great Tertön536 the lineage passed to Dharmaśrī, Rinchen Namgyal, Oḍīyana, Trinle Namgyal, Pema Wangyal, Namkhai Dorje, Tenzin Pelgye, Pema Tashi, Zhenpen Taye, and then to my lord guru Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who graciously bestowed the transmission on me. An alternative transmission passed from the Great Tertön through the great translator537 to Mingyur Paldrön, Rinchen Namgyal, Pema Tenzin, Trinle Namgyal, and Pema Wangyal, from whom Gyurme Tenzin Pelgye received it. Of the three major traditions of teachings for the Category of Mind, that of the Nyang tradition is represented by the manual of instruction authored by Sokdokpa Lodrö Gyaltsen. The lineage of continuous instruction, based on a word-by-word reading transmission, began with Samantabhadra and passed to Vajrasattva, Garap Dorje, Mañjuśrīmitra, Śrīsiṃha, Bairotsana, Yudra Nyingpo, Nyak Jñānakumāra, Sokpo Palgyi Yeshe, Nupchen, Nup Yönten Gyatso, Nyak Sherap Chok, Nyang Yeshe Jungne, Zurchen, Zurchung, Kyotön, Dropukpa, Chetön Gyanakpa, Upa Zhikpo, Zhikpo Dutsi, Tatön Joye, Tatön Ziji, Kyeme Dampa Sangye, Nyame Tulku Chenpo, Zur Jamseng, Zurmo Khetsun Sangye, Drolchen Samdrup Dorje, [42b] Drolmapa Sangye Rinchen, Gyalse Tukchok Tsal, Drakpa Paljor, Lodrö Rapyang, Lachen Dorje Chang, Lhaje Lodrö Zangpo, Dorje Yeshe, and Siddhivajra, down to the Great Tertön, from whom the lineage passed down just as in the preceding case of the empowerment. The lineage for the supplication prayer to the lineage of the Category of Mind is the same, from the author himself onward. The lineage for the manual of instruction according to the eastern Tibetan tradition, by the Katok master Chenga Namkha Dorje, is a lineage of reading transmission that also includes that of the detailed instruction for the Web of Magical Illusion—that is, from Samantabhadra to Vajrasattva, Garap Dorje, Mañjuśrīmitra, Dhahetala, Gomadeva, Rapnang Tenma, Tsokyi Dakpo, Nāgārjuna, Dorje Lekpa Tsal, Kukurāja, the “one with nine topInterior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 115 3/18/13 3:55 PM 116 The Catalog knots,” Dīpaṃkara, Śrīsiṃha, Bairotsana, Yudra Nyingpo, Salrap Chenpo, Palgyi Gyalpo of Ma, Jangchup Sherap of the Nyen clan, Yönten Jungne, Chokro Gomchung, Jampa Gomchen, Jangtön Namdak, Dampa Deshek, Chöje Tsangtön, Jampa Bum, Yeshe Bum, Yenpa Rinpoche, Bodhiśrī, and Vajraśrī (alternatively, from the great Jampa Bum the transmission passed to Tsade Chengawa, Drung Tukje Yeshe, Tönpa Wangjor Pal, to Vajraśrī). Palbar Namkha Dorje received this transmission from three masters—Yenpa Rinpoche, Jangchub Pal, and Moktön Dorje Pal—after which it passed to Palbum, Rinchen Palwa, Lodrö Zangpo, Sönam Döndrup, Namkha Gyatso, Wangdrak Gyatso, Chönyi Gyatso, Jangchup Gyaltsen, Ön Orgyen Namrol, Drung Namkha Gyatso, Losal Gyatso, Chökyi Dorje, Tsewang Chokdrup, Könchok Tupten Gyatso, Gyurme Tenzin, Choktrul Tupten Gyaltsen, and Kunzang Dorje Ziji, who graciously conferred this transmission on me. As for the Aro tradition of oral transmission (a tradition from eastern Tibet of the Category of Mind in the Great Perfection approach), [43a] the manual of instruction authored by Zhamar Kachö Wangpo is entitled Straightforward Instruction on the Heart Essence of the Vault of Space. The lineage for the reading transmission of these teachings began with the Lord of Sages538 and passed to the “child of the gods” Adhicitta, Garap Dorje, Śāvari Wangchuk, Maitrīpa (not the same master as the one famed in the New Schools), Śrīsiṃha, Bairotsana, Yudra Nyingpo, the translator Yeshe Zhönu of the Nyak clan, the incarnate Aro Yeshe Jungne, Yazi Böntön, Chokro Zangkarwa, Lodrö Jungne, Kongrap Tsoden Darmawa, Chegom Nakpo, Lama Drakarwa, Palden Dusum Khyenpa, Drogön Rechen, Gyalse Pomdrakpa, the mahāsiddhā Karma Pakṣi, Nyenre Gendun Bum, Kunkhyen Rangjung Dorje, Tokden Drakpa Senge, Ritröpa Darma Gyalwa, Kachö Wangpo, Lama Śākya Drakpa, and Chöpal Yeshe; down to this point there is an unbroken transmission of experientially based instruction. The lineage then passed to Lord Tongwa Dönden, Jampal Zangpo, Paljor Döndrup, Chödrak Gyatso, Sangye Nyenpa, Mikyö Dorje, Könchok Yenlak, Wangchuk Dorje, Chökyi Wangchuk, Maṇipa Karma Sungrap, Rapjampa Karma Dorje, Dhītsa Karma Trinle Wangpo, the all-seeing Dharmākara, Dudul Dorje, Pema Nyinje Wangpo, and the lord guru Karma Tenpai Nyima, in whose presence the transmission passed to me. (The more direct lineage for the foregoing teachings passed from Aro Yeshe Jungne to Bagom Sönam Nyingpo to Dusum Khyenpa, and then the rest of lineage continued as outlined previously.) An alternative lineage passed from Samantabhadra to Vajrasattva, Garap Dorje, Śrīsiṃha, Bairotsana, Yudra Nyingpo, Aro Yeshe Jungne, Yase539 Böntön, Drugu Lokjung, Bagom Sönam Nyingpo, Dampa Dzegom Zhikpo, Tokden Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 116 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 117 Bara Gomchen, Jomo Nyangmo, and Dampa Śākya Gyal, from whom it passed to both Upa Tönśāk and Upa Zhikpo. From these last three the teachings passed to Chikar Lhaje Lhakangpa Yönten, Zhikpo Dutsi, Tatön Joye, Tatön Ziji, [43b] Yungtön Dorje Pal, the Gyalwang Karmapa Rolpai Dorje, and then to Kachö Wangpo, after whom it continued as outlined previously. The lineage of oral instruction for Precious Ship, the essential manual of instruction for the All-Creating Monarch authored by the omniscient Longchenpa, began with the teacher, All-Creating Monarch, and passed to Vajrasattva, Garap Dorje, Mañjuśrīmitra, Śrīsiṃha, Bairotsana, Yudra Nyingpo, Chokro Lekpai Lodrö, Ba Gyalwai Wangpo, Tsur Chokgi Lama, Drung Yeshe Wangpo, Zurpa Rinchen Drak, Che Gawai Wangpo, Nyen Rinchen Tsemo, Chöje Kunga Döndrup, Zhönu Drup, Yeshe Wangpo, Drime Özer, Delek Gyatso, Mati Mangala, Yönten Palwa, Samdrup Gyatso, Namkha Zhönu, Namkha Longyang, Mati Dhvaja, Natsok Rangdrol, Khyapdal Lhundrup, Kunzang Namgyal, Dorje Pawo, Kundrol Namgyal, Ngedön Tenzin Zangpo, Rikzin Zangpo, Khen Pema Mangala, Zhenpen Taye, and Kunkhyen Sumpa, who graciously conferred it on me. For the inner cycle of the Category of Expanse in the Great Perfection approach, the lineage for the fourth chapter of the Supremely Vast Range of the Great Expanse, which constitutes the core of that tantra, paralleled the various lineages described above in the section on the tantra of the Category of Mind. There is a single lineage for all three components—empowerment, reading transmission, and instruction—for the following teachings: • the extensive arrangement of the methods for meditation, a practical application of the guru’s blessing; • the longevity empowerment that concludes this cycle; • the conferral associated with the guardian of these teachings, Medongchen; • the instruction in visualization for the “distilled essence of Ola Jose poured into the vessel that was Gyagom” and the associated manual for this oral lineage, entitled Opening the Eyes of the Fortunate, authored by Zhamar Chenga Chökyi Drakpa; • the source for the Vajra Bridge, with associated pith instructions and personal advice; • the summary of the Condensed Bridge; • Garland of Meditative Experience from the Precious Lineage of Oral Teachings and two associated manuals of instruction. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 117 3/18/13 3:55 PM 118 The Catalog This lineage began with dharmakāya Samantabhadra and passed to the sambhogakāya Vajrasattva, the nirmāṇakāya Sem-ngak Lhai Norbu, Garap Dorje, Mañjuśrīmitra, [44a] Śrīsiṃha, the great translator Bairotsana, Pang Mipam Gönpo, Ngenlam Jangchup Gyaltsen, Zangma Rinchen Yik, Khungyur Salwai Chok, Nyang Jangchup Drak, Nyang Sherap Jungne, Bagom Yeshe Jangchup, Dzeng Dharma Bodhi, Dzingkar Jose, the master Kunzang Dorje, Sangye Dongpo, Kyetse Yeshe Jangchup, Zik Yeshe Wangpo, Khenchen Ngurpa Sönam Ö, Ngurtön Vajreśvara, Sönam Gyaltsen, Sherap Gyaltsen, Zhönu Sherap, Zhönu Drakpa, Sangye Zangpo, Tsöndru Wangchuk, Tashi Drakpa Rinchen, Lachen Śākya Gyalpo, Gö Lotsāwa Zhönu Palwa, Zhamar Chenga Chökyi Drakpa, Sheldrak Chökyi Lodrö, Khyung Tsangwa Lodrö Palden, Pangtön Karma Gurupa, Pangtön Chöwang Lhundrup, Chöwang Kunzang, Pangtön Kunzang Chögyal, Terdak Lingpa, Rinchen Namgyal, the throne holder Pema Tenzin, Oḍīyana, Gyurme Rikzin Zangpo, Jangsem Pema Mangala, Khedrup Rikpai Dorje, and the omniscient guru Mañjughoṣa, who graciously bestowed this transmission on me. (The transmission for the supplication to the lineage of the Category of Expanse, authored by the Great Tertön, began with the author himself and continued as described in the preceding case.) In the third, secret cycle of the Category of Direct Transmission, the lineage for the Quintessential Keystone of the Category of Direct Transmission in the Great Perfection Approach of Utter Lucidity, containing the legacies of the three buddhas and the testaments of the four masters of awareness, paralleled the one described below for the empowerments and instructions. As for the lineage of maturation and liberation based on the four empowerments—elaborate, unelaborate, extremely unelaborate, and utterly unelaborate—from the Innermost Drop of the Guru cycle authored by the omniscient and noble Longchen Rapjam, as well as the Oral Transmission of Vimala: Manual of Instruction That Unites in a Single Mainstream the “Mother and Child” Cycles of the Heart Drop Teachings, this began with dharmakāya— the masculine and feminine aspects, Samantabhadra and Samantabhadrā, in unity—and passed to the entire vast range of peaceful and wrathful victorious ones, [44b] the great one gone to bliss Vajradhara, Vajrasattva, Vajrapāṇi, Garap Dorje, Mañjuśrīmitra, Śrīsiṃha, Jñānasutra, Vimalamitra, the omniscient knower of the three times Padmākara, the Buddhist ruler Trisong Detsen, Tingzin Zangpo, Dangma Lhungyal, Senge Wangchuk, Gyalwa Zhangtön, Khepa Nyibum, Guru Jober, Senge Gyapa, Melong Dorje, Kumararāja, Longchen Rapjam, Khyapdal Lhundrup, Drakpa Özer, Sangye Önpo, Dawa Drakpa, Kunzang Dorje, Gyaltsen Palzang, Natsok Rangdrol, Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 118 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 119 Tenzin Drakpa, Dongak Tenzin, Trinle Lhundrup, Terdak Lingpa, Rinchen Namgyal, Orgyen Tenzin Dorje, Gyurme Trinle Namgyal, Trinle Chödrön, and my omniscient guru Jampaiyang Khyentse Wangpo, who graciously bestowed these transmissions on me. The lineage of reading transmissions for the texts of the four empowerment rituals, as well as Wish-Fulfilling Ocean, the ritual feast offering, is as in the preceding case. The lineage for the teachings from the Profound Innermost Drop collection—the empowerments for the “Three Cycles of the Sphere of Being” and Illuminating Lamp: Practical Instructions for the Empowerment, as well as the Great Practical Instruction of the Sublime Secret and the Quintessential Practical Instruction—is one of continuous instruction, based on a word-by-word reading transmission. It began with Samantabhadra and passed to Vajrasattva, Garap Dorje, Mañjuśrīmitra, Śrīsiṃha, Vimalamitra, Tingzin Zangpo of the Nyang clan, Be Lodrö Wangchuk, Dro Rinchen Barwa, Dangma Lhungyi Gyaltsen, Chetsun Senge Wangchuk, Guru Shangpa Repa, Lama Zapdön Chöbar, Dampa Gyertön and his spiritual son, Nyentön Sherap Tsemo, the two brothers who were incarnations of Yönten Gang, Rikzin Kumararāja, the omniscient Özer Gocha, Delek Gyatso, Mati Mangala, Jangsem Yönten Pal, the incarnate Samdrup Gyalpo, [45a] Shangpa Rechen, Namkha Zhönu, Khalong Yangpa, Mentse Lodrö Gyaltsen, Gyalse Sherap Gyaltsen, Tsultrim Sangye, Ösel Chokyang, Jamyang Chökyong Wangchuk, Gönpo Sönam Chokden, Trinle Lhundrup, Terdak Lingpa, Rinchen Namgyal, the throne holder Pema Tenzin, Gyurme Trinle Namgyal, Pema Tenkyong Gyurme, Pawo Tsuklak Chögyal, Dzogchenpa Orgyen Chöpel, Tokden Karma Pelgye, and the incarnate Karma Zhenpen Tenpa Dargye, from whom I received these transmissions. As for the lineage of the Precious Golden Garland, the manual of instruction for the heart essence of profound meaning, this began with dharmakāya Samantabhadra and passed to the sambhogakāya buddhas of the five families, the nirmāṇakāya Vajradhara, the teacher Vajrasattva, Garap Dorje, Śrīsiṃha, Pema Tötreng, Yeshe Tsogyal, the princess Pemasal, Ledrel Tsal, Lekdenpa, the omniscient Drime Özer, Delek Gyatso, Tsungme Yönten Palwa, Sangye Rinchen, Sangye Gyaltsen, Dzayik Tsulgyal, Sönam Namgyal, Orgyen Tenzin, Karma Guru, Kunzang Paljor, Dongak Tenzin, Trinle Lhundrup, and Terdak Lingpa, following whom the lineage can be drawn as in the case of the Innermost Drop of the Guru. An alternative lineage paralleled that of the foregoing case of the legacies and testaments. As for essential instructions on the three aspects of virtue, the three topics of the Great Perfection cycle Resting at Ease in Mind Itself (taken from the collected works of the omniscient Drime Özer) and the “Three Cycles Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 119 3/18/13 3:55 PM 120 The Catalog of Natural Freedom” (taken from his miscellaneous writings), the lineage of instruction and reading transmission for these texts is as follows (the ways in which the individual lineages of the sutra and tantra teachings were transmitted are clearly set forth in the records of teachings received by masters in the past):540 From Longchen Rapjam onward the lineage passed to Dengom Chökyi Drakpa, [45b] Ngalpa Tönpa, Chökyi Drakpa, Sönam Paljor, Mentsepa, Natsok Rangdrol, Tenzin Drakpa, Dongak Tenzin, Trinle Lhundrup, and Gyurme Dorje, after whom the lineage is as described above for the essential manual of instruction on the Heart Essence of Magical Illusion. I received this transmission in the presence of my precious lord Khyentse Wangpo, and also from my lord guru Gyurme Tutop Namgyal, who passed on a lineage associated with the Great Perfection approach transmitted by Lhodrak Sungtrul and others. The lineage for the manual of instruction for Stirring the Pit was transmitted from the author himself through the general lineage of the throne holders of Mindroling, down to Trinle Chödrön and then my sovereign lord Khyentse Wangpo, from whom I received it. As for the lineage of the authorization ritual for the seven classes of Ekajāṭi, guardian of these teachings, before Longchenpa it is the general lineage of the Heart Drop teachings. Following him it passed to Delek Gyatso, Mati Mangala, Yönten Pal, Tulku Samgyal, Namkha Zhönu, Khalong Yangpa, Mentsepa Lodrö Gyaltsen, Natsok Rangdrol, Tenzin Drakpa, Karma Gyalse, Rinchen Dargye, Trinle Lhundrup, and Terdak Lingpa. From him the transmission continued through several lineages, but the one that concerns us here passed to Gyurme Tekchok Tenzin, Gyurme Kunzang Namgyal, Pema Sangak Tenzin Chögyal, and Gyurme Tutop Namgyal, from whom it passed to me. B. Kadam In the second case, that of the precious Kadampa school, among the primary sources the main text is the Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment, the source verses on the graduated paths of the three spiritual models, authored by the incomparable Noble Lord. The lineage for the explanatory instructions and reading transmission of this teaching began with Paṇchen Dīpaṃkara and passed to the king of dharma Dromtön, Potowa Rinchen Sal, Sharawa Yönten Drak, Chumikpa Sherap Drak, Drotön Dutsi Drak, Sangye Gompa Senge Kyap, Chim Namkha Drak, Gyangro Lama Jangchup Bum, Chim Lozang Drak, Yönten Sönam Lhundrup, [46a] Lopön Drakpa Gyatso, Khenchen Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 120 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 121 Drupa Sherap, Gyatön Tsandra Dewa, Ritröpa Sönam Gyatso, Gartön Sherap Gyatso, Khedrup Palden Dorje, Yongzin Könchok Pel, Ngorchen Könchok Lhundrup, Je Könchok Palden, Jampa Kunga Tashi, Drupkhangpa Palden Döndrup, Gönpo Sönam Chokden, Tsetsok Umdze Kunga Ngödrup, Je Puntsok Lekjor, Kangyurwa Ngawang Rapten, Morchen Kunga Lhundrup, Je Jampal Gyatso, Khenchen Gendun Gyatso, Könchok Jikme Wangpo, Khen Könchok Gyaltsen, Drupchen Könchok Gyatso, Könchok Tenpa Rapgye, and the all-seeing Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who graciously conferred the transmissions on me. As for the lineage for the text authored by Tokden Kachö Wangpo on the graduated path according to the tradition of Gampo, it paralleled the lineage for the bodhisattva vow (as described below) from the Noble Lord onward, and I received it from Pema Nyinje Wangpo and the Gyalwang Karmapa Tekchok Dorje. The lineage for the explanations and reading transmission of Quintessence of Nectar: Manual of Instruction for the Pith Instructions Concerning the Three Spiritual Models, authored by Jetsun Tāranātha, began with the Noble Lord, the glorious Atīśa (in whom three lineages—that of profound view, that of extensive conduct, and that of the blessings of spiritual practice—converged as one), and passed to Dromtön, Potowa, Sharawa, Tumtön Lodrö Drak, Dotön, Palden Dromoche, Kyotön Senge Kyap, Chim Namkha Drak, Kyotön Mönlam Tsultrim, Zeu Drakpa, Chim Lozang Drakpa, Drotön Kungyalwa, Drupa Sherap, Sönam Chokdrup, Palden Döndrup, Sönam Drakpa, Kunga Chokdrup, Kunga Drolchok, Lungrik Gyatso, Tāranātha, Rinchen Gyatso, Lodrö Namgyal, Ngawang Trinle, Kunzang Wangpo, Tsewang Norbu, [46b] Kagyu Trinle Shingta, Kunga Gelek Palbar, Kunga Lhundrup, Kagyu Tenzin, and Karma Lhaktong, from whom I received this transmission. While I have received many special transmission lineages associated with this teaching, the foregoing is simply the most fundamental one. The lineage of instructions and reading transmissions for Concise Meaning of the Graduated Path, authored by Lord Lozang Drakpa, began with the Precious Lord himself and passed to Khedrupa, Drongtse Rinchen Gyatso, Paṇchen Zangpo Tashi, Paṇchen Namzawa, Paṇchen Yeshe Tsemo, Paṇchen Dönyö Gyaltsen, Khedrup Sangye Yeshe, Paṇchen Lozang Chökyi Gyaltsen, Kyishöpa Ngawang Tenzin Trinle, Zimshak Lozang Khetsun, Drungpa Ngelek Lhundrup, Je Ngawang Chödrak, Dukhorwa Yönten Dargye, Je Sönam Zangpo, Ngawang Döndrup, Longdol Ngawang Lozang, Yongzin Ngawang Chöpel, Jamgön Jampa Puntsok, and my omniscient precious guru, who conferred the oral teachings on me. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 121 3/18/13 3:55 PM 122 The Catalog As for the lineage of reading transmission for Refined Gold: Manual of Instruction on the Graduated Path to Enlightenment, authored by the third Gyalwang Dalai Lama, Sönam Gyatso, it began with the author himself and passed to Chenga Chöpal Zangpo of Drakgön Monastery, Khöntön Paljor Lhundrup, Zur Paljor Trinle Rapgye, Ngawang Lozang Gyatso, Neten Jamyang Drakpa, Drupkhangpa Gelek Gyatso, Purbuchok Ngawang Jampa, Longdol Ngawang Lozang, Khenpo Lozang Tutop Nyima of Harchen Gomang, Lhatsun Döndrup Gyaltsen, Shenyen Yeshe Gongpel, and the omniscient Jampaiyang,541 who passed the transmission to me. The linage for the instructions and reading transmissions of the intimate oral lineage of the graduated path, given on the basis of Blissful Path, the manual of instruction authored by Paṇchen Lozang Chökyi Gyaltsen, [47a] is as follows according to the record of teachings received by Longdol: It began with the lord Jampal Nyingpo and passed to Gyaltsap Darma Rinchen, Khedrup Gelek Palzang, Je Sherap Senge, Gyalwa Gendun Drup, Baso Chökyi Gyaltsen, Dulzin Lodrö Bepa, Drupchen Chökyi Dorje, Je Kyapchok Palzang, Ensapa Lozang Döndrup, Gyalwa Sönam Gyatso, Khedrup Sangye Yeshe, Paṇchen Lozang Chökyi Gyaltsen, Drungpa Tapukpa, Tsöndru Gyaltsen, Drung Tapukpa Damchö Gyaltsen, Drupkhang Gelek Gyatso, Purbuchok Ngawang Jampa, Yongzin Yeshe Gyaltsen, Gungtangpa Könchok Tenpai Drönme, Zhungpa Ritröpa Könchok Dargye, Jamgön Jampa Puntsok, and my omniscient and all-seeing lord guru, who passed the transmission on to me. As a relevant factor at this point, there are distinct alternate lineages for the transmission of the vow for arousing bodhicitta in the lineage of profound view, such as the lineage transmitted by Jowo Tangpa Dza and Jikme Jungne, or the one that Sangye Yeshe passed to the great Ngok Lotsāwa. Here, however, if we consider how the two lineages were passed down from the incomparable Noble Lord, the lineage of profound view began with the perfect Buddha, the Lord of Sages, and passed to Mañjuśrīkumāra, the exalted Nāgārjuna, Āryadeva, Candrakīrti, Vidyākokila, Kusāli the Elder, Kusāli the Younger, and Serlingpa Chökyi Drakpa. The lineage of extensive conduct began with the transcendent and accomplished conqueror Śākyamuni and passed to the regent Maitreyanātha, the exalted Asaṅga, the master Vasubandhu, Vimuktasena, Paramasena, Vinitasena, Vairocana, Haribhadra, Kusāli the Elder, Kusāli the Younger, and the bodhisattva Serlingpa. Both lineages then passed to the Lord Dīpaṃkara and then to Dromtön Gyalwai Jungne, Chenga Tsultrim Bar, Jayulwa, Yeshe Bar, [47b] Gyachak Riwa, Nazurwa, the incomparable Dakpo Lhaje, Dusum Khyenpa, Rechen Sönam Drakpa, Gyalse Sönam Dorje, Drupchen Chökyi Lama, Nyenre Gendun Bum, Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 122 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 123 Rangjung Dorje, Yungtön Dorje Pal, Gönpo Gyaltsen, Dzamling Chökyi Drakpa, Kachö Wangpo, Dezhin Shekpa, Chöpal Yeshe, Tongwa Dönden, Jampal Zangpo, Paljor Döndrup, Chödrak Gyatso, Sangye Nyenpa, Mikyö Dorje, Könchok Yenlak, Wangchuk Dorje, Chökyi Wangchuk, Chöying Dorje, Yeshe Nyingpo, Yeshe Dorje, Chökyi Döndrup, Jangchup Dorje, Chökyi Jungne, the Gyalwang Karmapa Dudul Dorje, and Jamgön Pema Nyinje Wangpo, in whose gracious presence I received the transmission of the ritual for arousing bodhicitta as aspiration and application on two occasions, as well as that for the arousal of the ultimate aspect of bodhicitta as passed down from the lord Jikten Sumgön. Alternatively, from the lord Chökyi Jungne a lineage passed to Karma Chakme, Pema Kunga, Trinle Wangjung, Sherap Drakpa, Karma Tsangyang, and Karma Tenzin Trinle (the fourth sublime incarnation), from whom I received it. As for the lineage through which the arousal of bodhicitta and transmission of the vow takes place according to the tradition of extensive conduct in the Mahāyāna approach, this began with the completely and perfectly enlightened Buddha and passed to the lord protector Maitreya, the exalted Asaṅga, the master Vasubandhu, the venerable Vimuktasena, Paramasena, the master Haribhadra, both Kusāli the Elder and Kusāli the Younger, Serlingpa Chökyi Drakpa, the Noble Lord Dīpaṃkara,542 Gyalwa Dromtön, Chenga Tsultrim Bar, Geshe Jayulwa, Gyalse Charchenpa (also known as Mumenpa), Drotön Dutsi Drak, Sangye Gompa Senge Kyap, [48a] Chim Namkha Drak, Khenchen Senge Kyap, Khetsun Sönam Yeshe, Jangsem Sönam Drakpa, Gyalse Tokme Zangpo Pal, Drupchen Buddhaśrī, Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo, Khedrup Palden Dorje, Khenchen Könchok Tsultrim, Gorumpa Kunga Lekpa, Jamyang Khyentse Wangchuk, Je Wangchuk Rapten, Khenchen Ngawang Chödrak, Jamgön Kunga Sönam, Dese Sönam Wangchuk, Lhakhang Khenchen Döndrup Lekzang, Morchen Kunga Lhundrup, Nesarwa Lekpai Jungne, Sachen Kunga Lodrö, Muchen Sönam Palzang, Muchen Yeshe Gyalchok, Yongzin Lodrö Gyatso, Sakyapa Ngawang Dorje Rinchen, and the omniscient Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who was enormously gracious in entrusting me with this transmission. An alternative lineage passed from Jangsem Sönam Drakpa to Butön Rinchen Drup, Tukse Rinchen Namgyal, Khenchen Drupa Sherap, Paṇchen Gendun Drup, Dulzin Lodrö Bepa, Paṇchen Lungrik Gyatso, Je Kyapchok Pal, Ensapa Lozang Döndrup, Khedrup Sangye Yeshe, Paṇchen Lozang Chökyi Gyaltsen, Drungpa Tsöndru Gyaltsen, Tapukpa Damchö Gyaltsen, Drupkhangpa Gelek Gyatso, Purbuchok Ngawang Jampa, Yongzin Yeshe Gyaltsen, Shenyen Lozang Gyaltsen, Rinchen Losal Tenkyong, and Jampalyang Khyentse Wangpo, who conferred it on me. Yet another linInterior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 123 3/18/13 3:55 PM 124 The Catalog eage passed from Gyalse Tokme to Lochen Jangchup Tsemo, Deön Lochen Drakgyal, Bodong Paṇchen Chokle Namgyal, [48b] Jamlingpa Lachen Sönam Namgyal, Serdok Paṇchen Śākya Chokden, Paṇchen Dönyö Drupa, Jetsun Kunga Drolchok, Paṇchen Lungrik Gyatso, Jetsun Kunga Nyingpo, Gyaltsap Yeshe Gyatso, Je Yönten Gönpo, Drupchen Gönpo Paljor, Tsungme Gönpo Drakpa, Drupwang Gönpo Namgyal, Rikzin Jamyang Gyatso, Kunzik Trinle Shingta, Mokchokpa Kunga Gelek, Kunga Lhundrup Gyatso, Je Kagyu Tenzin, Lama Karma Lhaktong, and Drupwang Karma Norbu, who was very gracious in conferring this transmission on me. As for the primary teaching in the tradition of advice, that of the Seven Points of Mental Training, the lineage of experientially based instruction that I received in a thorough manner began with the Lord of Sages and passed to Maitreya, Asaṅga, Vasubandhu, Bhaṭṭāraka Vimuktasena, Guṇamitra, Haribhadra, Pūrṇavardhana, Kusāli the Elder, Kusāli the Younger, Serlingpa, the lord protector Atīśa, Gyalwa Dromtön, Potowa, Sharawa, Ja Chekhawa Yeshe Dorje, Se Kyilbupa Chökyi Gyaltsen, Özer Lama, Lhadingpa Jangchup Bum, Ön Kunga Gyatso, Tsok Yönten Pal, Khen Dewa Pal, Kazhi Drakpa Zhönu, Jangsem Sönam Drakpa, Gyalse Tokme Zangpo Pal, Yönten Lodrö, Zhönu Lodrö, Paṇchen Śākya Chokden, Kunga Chokdrup, Jetsun Drolchok, Lungrik Gyatso, Tāranātha, his two regents,543 Yönten Gönpo, Gönpo Paljor, Gönpo Drakpa, Gönpo Namgyal, Tsewang Norbu, Trinle Shingta, Kunga Gelek Palbar, Kunga Lhundrup, Kagyu Tenzin, Karma Lhaktong, and Gyalse Jangchup Sempa Zhenpen Taye. [49a] An alternative lineage passed from Gyalse Tokme to Buddhaśrī, Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo, Muchen Könchok Gyaltsen, Ngawang Sherap Zangpo, Nyuklo Paṇchen Ngawang Drakpa, Ngawang Chödrak, Shau Lotsāwa, Chobgyepa Khyenrap Zhap, Morchen Kunga Lhundrup, Nesarwa Kunga Lekpai Jungne, Kunga Lodrö, Kunga Khedrup Wangpo, and Jampa Kunga Tenzin and Jamgön Dorje Rinchen, from both of whom Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo received this transmission and graciously conferred it on me. Concerning the source verses for the Seven Points of Mental Training with interlinear notes, the lineage of continuous reading transmission paralleled the two foregoing cases. In the case of Mental Training: Opening the Door to the Dharma, authored by Gyama Lodrö Gyaltsen, the lineage of instruction and reading transmission began with the author and passed to Dönyö Palden of Sera Monastery, Paṇchen Sönam Drakpa, Gyalwa Sönam Gyatso, Paṇchen Rikpai Senge, Je Tashi Rinchen, Paṇchen Lozang Chökyi Gyaltsen, Lozang Tenpa Dargye of Lhasa, Yongzin Sönam Drakpa, Paṇchen Lozang Yeshe, Lozang Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 124 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 125 Tenpa, Puntsok Gyatso, Lozang Tsultrim, Ngawang Gyatso, Dewai Dorje, Ngawang Chözin, Khyenrap Losal, Jamyang Mönlam, Yeshe Gyatso, Lozang Yeshe Tenzin, Palden Chokdrup, Tupten Chökyi Drakpa, and Tupten Lekshe Zangpo, who conferred it on me. Before Muchen Sempa Chenpo, the lineage for the collection known as the One Hundred Teachings on Mental Training is as outlined in the records of teachings received by the Precious Fifth, Zhuchen, and others. From Muchen Sempa Chenpo the transmission passed to Jetsun Sangye Rinchen, Ngorchen Könchok Lhundrup, Mupa Könchok Gyatso, [49b] Muchen Sangye Gyaltsen, Mupa Drupwang Sönam Lhundrup, Jamgön Kunga Sönam, Dese Sönam Wangchuk, Khenchen Döndrup Lekzang, Morchen Kunga Lhundrup, Nesarwa Lekpai Jungne, Kangyurwa Tapke Gyatso, Geshe Lozang Gyatso, Drakgyap Lozang Chöpel, Geshe Tokme (also known as Gelek Chöpel), Martön Khyapdak Dorje, Walmang Könchok Gyaltsen, Könchok Tenpa Rapgye, and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who conferred it on me. The lineage of reading transmission for the manual of instruction on the Seven Points of Mental Training authored by Gyalse Tokme Zangpo Pal began with the author and passed to Nyakpupa Sönam Zangpo, Pakpa Sönam Dar, Pakpa Kunga Gyaltsen, Kunkhyen Śākya Ö, Deön Kunga Ö, Sheu Lotsāwa Kunga Chödrak, Ngawang Choklek Dorje, Khyenrap Tenzin Zangpo, Jampa Ngawang Lhundrup, Ngawang Tenzin Gyatso, Kangyurwa Ngawang Rapten, Kangyurwa Ngawang Chögyal, Lozang Jampal Gyatso, Ritrö Lozang Döndrup, Drakkar Kachupa Ngawang Drakpa, Khenchen Könchok Gyaltsen, Martön Khyapdak Dorje, Khenzur Sönam Drakpa of Sera Je College, Geshe Kalzang Khedrup of Chuzang, Takpu Yongzin Yeshe Gyatso, Könchok Tenpa Dargye, and my lord guru Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who conferred it on me. Up to Nyukla Paṇchen, the lineage of reading transmission for A Bodhisattva’s Garlands of Gems, the source verses for the precious volumes of Kadampa teachings, paralleled that of the empowerment lineage discussed below. It then passed to Dakpo Paṇchen Chokle Namgyal, [50a] Ngaripa Lhawang Lodrö, Jamyang Könchok Lhundrup, Khamtön Sherap Gyaltsen, Tartse Namkha Gyaltsen, Drupkhangpa Palden Döndrup, Deön Palchok Gyaltsen, Rinchen Sönam Chokdrup, Ngawang Lozang Gyatso, Neten Jamyang Drakpa, Je Trinle Lhundrup, Ngawang Lozang Dargye, Drakpa Gyatso, Lozang Tenpai Gyaltsen, the Gyalwang Dalai Lama Kalzang Gyatso, Khenpo Kalzang Yönten, Martön Khyapdak, Tri Ngawang Chöpel, Yeshe Tupten Gyatso, Könchok Tenpa Dargye, and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who conferred the transmission on me. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 125 3/18/13 3:55 PM 126 The Catalog The lineage for the empowerment for the “Sixteen Spheres” began with the Noble Lord, Dīpaṃkara Śrījñāna, and passed to the king of dharma Dromtön, Ngok Lekpai Sherap, Ngaripa Sherap Gyaltsen, Puchungwa Zhönu Gyaltsen, Kamawa Drom Rinchen Gyaltsen, Zhangtön Darma Gyaltsen, Drom Jangchup Zangpo, Tönpa Namkha Rinchen, Drom Zhönu Lodrö, Khenpo Nyima Gyaltsen of Nartang Monastery, Lingkhawa Rinchen Jangchup, Galungpa Rikyi Dakpö Pal, Galungpa Jangchup Pal, the master of Nyukpa Sönam Özer, Göngön Chuserwa Sangye Zangpo, Jadralwa Sönam Zangpo, Lama Paldenpa, Khenchen Namkha Özer of Taktsang Monastery, Neten Yeshe Tsultrim, Khenchen Ratna Akāra Śānti, Nyukla Paṇchen Ngawang Drakpa, Lopa Chenga Ngawang Chödrak Gyaltsen, Je Kunga Lekdrup, Je Kunga Chödrak, Chobgyepa Choklek Dorje, Khyenrap Tenzin Zangpo, Khyenrap Ngawang Lhundrup, Chöje Trinle Namgyal, [50b] Rinchen Sönam Chokdrup, Ngawang Lozang Gyatso, Neten Jamyang Drak, Kyishö Tulku Ngawang Tenzin Trinle, Je Lozang Chözin, Dongkor Zhapdrung Puntsok Gyatso, Zhang Zhungpa Yeshe Taye, Könchok Jikme Wangpo, Gungtangpa Könchok Tenpai Drönme, Könchok Tenpa Rapgye, and the all-seeing Mañjughoṣa, who with great delight conferred this transmission on me in his actual presence. As for the Practical Implementation of Meditation and Mantra Repetition authored by Könchok Tenpai Drönme, the author transmitted this to Könchok Tenpa Dargye, who passed it to my guru Jamgön, who conferred it on me. From the Four Deities of the Kadampa tradition, the lineage of the authorization ritual for the Sage Vajrāsana and two retinue deities, this began with the Lord of Sages and passed to the Noble Lord, Gönpawa, Nezurwa, Langtangpa, Zhang Zhungpa, Mumenpa, Sangye Gompa, Chim Namkha Drak, Kyotön Mönlam Tsultrim, Zeu Drakse, Chim Lozang Drakpa, Drotön Kunga Gyaltsen, Pangtön Drupa Sherap, Khenchen Palden Döndrup, Ratön Yönten Palzang, Jetsun Kunga Chokdrup, Jetsun Kunga Drolchok, Khenchen Lungrik Gyatso, and Jetsun Tāranātha, from whom it passed to Gyaltsap Rinchen Gyatso and Trinle Wangmo, and from both of them to Nyingpo Taye, Ngawang Trinle, Kunzang Wangpo, Tsewang Norbu, Kagyu Trinle Shingta, Tenzin Chökyi Nyima, Kagyu Trinle Namgyal, and Pema Nyinje Wangpo, who conferred it on me. For Avalokiteśvara, Tārā, and Acala the lineages came from their respective sources but are the same as the above from the Noble Lord onward. An alternative lineage from the authorization ritual by the Sage passes from the Noble Lord, the glorious Atīśa, through Naktso Lotsāwa, Rongpa Chaksorwa, Jawa Dul, [51a] Chökyi Jangchup, Zulpuwa, Könchok Senge, from both the foregoing two to Tsultrim Rinchen, and then to Darma Zangpo, Zhönu Gyaltsen, Gyaltsen Döndrup, Rinchen Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 126 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 127 Gyaltsen, Bodhisattva, Rinchen Drakpa, Sönam Lhawang, Ngawang Drakpa, Sönam Palden, Ludrup Gyatso, Ngawang Chödrak, Kunga Sönam, Sönam Chokdrup, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, Jamyang Drakpa, Lozang Chözin, Lozang Tenpa, Jatang Chöje, Yeshe Taye, Jikme Wangpo, Sönam Wangyal, Könchok Gyaltsen, Könchok Tenpa Rapgye, and my lord guru Khyentse, in whose presence I received the transmission. The lineage for the three-deity mandala of Avalokiteśvara is from Mahākaruṇika to Rāhulaguptavajra, Atīśa, Naktso Lotsāwa, Chaksorwa Sherap Bar, Bayuwa Sherap Tsultrim, Chegom Sherap Dorje, Kyergangpa, Nyentön Sangye Tönpa, Tsöndru Senge, Druptop Aseng, Serling Tashi Palwa, Dorje Palwa, Chöpal Sherap, Chenga Drakjung, Lowa Tsultrim Dar, and Chenga Sönam Lhawang, after whom the lineage is the same as for the authorization ritual for the Lord of Sages. The lineage for the authorization ritual of the three-deity mandala of Khādiravaṇī Tārā passed from Tārā to the Noble Lord, Naktso, and from there the same as for the Lord of Sages. The lineage for the single form of the blue Acala passed from the king of wrathful deities Acala to Atīśa, Gönpawa, Neu Zurpa, Tokden Zangmowa, Gendun Gangpa, Sangye Jowo Tsultrim Gönpo, Chökyi Dorje, Serkhangpa Rinchen Pel, Lopa Tsultrim Dar, and Chenga Sönam Lhawang, and from there the same as for the authorization ritual for the Sage. The lineage for the instructions on the view of the Sage comes from the Sage to Avalokiteśvara, Maitreyanātha, [51b] Asaṅga and his brother,544 Ārya Vimuktisena and Bhadanta Vimuktisena, Vairocana, Haribhadra, Kusāli the Elder and Younger, Serlingpa, the Noble Lord, Dromtönpa, Potowa, Langri Tangpa, Gyatön Chakriwa, Dakpo Lhaje, Naljor Chöyung, Gyergom Chenpo, Gyagom Riwa, Bodong Tsöndru Dorje, Nyenchen Sönam Tenpa, Sherap Bum, Tokme Zangpo, Drakpa Gyaltsen, Drakpa Shenyen, Rinchen Gyaltsen, Gyalwa Chakna, Kunga Lodrö, Nyukla Paṇchen, Lopa Chenga, Namkha Wangchuk, Sangye Gyaltsen, Kunga Sönam, Sönam Wangchuk, Sönam Chokdrup, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, Gendun Döndrup, Ngawang Tenzin Trinle, Lozang Chözin, Puntsok Gyatso, Lozang Döndrup, Ngawang Lozang, Kalzang Tupten, Gelek Tenzin, Könchok Gyaltsen, Tenpa Rapgye, and my guru Mañjughoṣa, from whom I received it. As for the instructions on the Avalokiteśvara practice Compassion Permeating Space, these passed from Amitābha to Mahākaruṇika, Rāhula, Atīśa, Naktso, Rongpa, Chaksorwa, and Bayuwa, from whom both Ngaripa Sherap Gyaltsen and Chegom received the instructions. From both of them Kyergangpa received the transmission, which then passed to Nyentön, Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 127 3/18/13 3:55 PM 128 The Catalog Sangye Tönpa, Tsangma Shangtön, Gyaltsen Bum, Jampa Pal, Jampa Mönlam Wangchuk, Sönam Gyaltsen, Sherap Zangpo, and Nyukla Paṇchen, and from thereon the same as for the instructions on the view of the Sage. The instructions for the fivefold recollection of Tārā passed from the venerable Tārā to Dīpaṃkara, Gyalwai Jungne, Lekpai Sherap, Ngaripa Sherap Gyaltsen, Puchung Zhönu Gyaltsen, Kamawa Rinchen Gyaltsen, Zhangtön Darma Gyaltsen, Dromtön Jangchup Zangpo, [52a] Tapka Namkha Rinchen, Dromtön Zhönu Lodrö, Lama Drakpukpa, Khenchen Galungpa, Önpo Sönam Ö, Sönam Zangpo, Lama Paldenpa, Tsangpa Lodrak, Śākya Gyaltsen, Sönam Lhawang, Chödrak Gyaltsen, and Paṇchen Namkha Wangchuk, and from thereon the same as for the instructions on the view of the Sage. As for the six practices of Acala, these passed from Vajradhara to Indrabhūti, *Nāgayoginī,Visukalpa, Sarahapa, Ārya Nāgārjuna, Candrakīrti, Vīryamitra, *Lalitavajra, the venerable Līlāvajra, Śāntipa, the Noble Lord, Gompa Wangchuk Bar, Neu Zurpa, Gyergom Chenpo, Sangye Öntön, Tokden Zangmowa, Lhatrang Sowa, Lopön Chakriwa, Sangye Zhönu Ö, Gyamawa Tashi Gyaltsen, Khenchen Sangye Rinchen, Drakpa Tsultrim, Gyalwa Zangpo, Jadral Sönam Rinchen, Chödrak Zangpo, Rinchen Gyaltsen, Gyalwa Chakna, Kunga Lodrö, Teu Ripa Rinchen Chögyal, and Nyukla Paṇchen, and from there as in the foregoing case. The lineage for the source text on the Precious Lord’s excellent work, Three Principles of the Spiritual Path, passed from the lord Tsongkhapa to Khedrup Je, Drongtse Lhatsun Rinchen Gyatsö Lodrö, Zangpo Tashi, Yeshe Tsemo, Tsultrim Topbar Özer, Dönyö Gyaltsen, Sangye Yeshe, Lozang Chögyan, Ngawang Tenzin Trinle, Lozang Khetsun, Ngelek Lhundrup, Yönten Dargye, Sönam Zangpo, Lupumpa Gendun Gyatso, Könchok Jikme Wangpo, Tenzin Gyatso, Lhatsun Döndrup Gyaltsen, Yeshe Gongpel, and my lord guru, from whom I received it. As for the lineage for the explanatory instructions on the foregoing text, this came from the venerable Mañjuśrīghoṣa [52b] to Gyalwa Jampal Nyingpo, Baso Chökyi Gyaltsen, Drupchen Chö Dorje, Ensapa Lozang Döndrup, Khedrup Sangye Yeshe, Paṇchen Chökyi Gyaltsen, Ngakchen Könchok Gyaltsen, Paṇchen Lozang Yeshe, Khedrup Ngawang Jampa, the lord Jampa Mönlam, Yeshe Tenpa Rapgye, Yongzin Ngawang Chöpel, Choktrul Ngawang Yeshe Gyaltsen, and my omniscient precious guru,545 from whom I received it. As for the Main Path of Victorious Ones, Mahāmudrā teachings of the Geden school by Paṇchen Lozang Chökyi Gyaltsen, if the lineage after the author himself is found, it should be inserted at this point. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 128 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 129 The lineage for the reading transmission of Heart Essence of Nectar, the instructions in the view of the Middle Way by Mangtö Ludrup Gyatso, is the same as for the 108 Instructions up to Kunga Drolchok, after which it passed to Ludrup Gyatso, Ngawang Chödrak, Sakyapa Kunga Sönam, his son Sönam Wangchuk, Khenchen Sönam Chokdrup, Jampa Ngawang Lhundrup, Morchen Kunga Lhundrup, Nesarwa Lekpai Jungne, Sachen Kunga Lodrö, Jampa Namkha Chime, Jampa Kunga Tenzin, and my omniscient and precious guru Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, from whom I received it. As for the instructions in the view of qualified emptiness, these passed from Kunga Drolchok and others as is outlined below according to the 108 Instructions, and then from Rikzin Tsewang Norbu to the omniscient Tenpai Nyinje, Karma Tsewang Kunkhyap, the thirteenth Gyalwang Karmapa Dudul Dorje, and Vajradhara Pema Nyinje Wangpo, in whose presence I received it. (It would be best to trace the lineages of the two instructions on the view of the Middle Way as in the case of the 108 Instructions, which is presented below.) The lineage of the reading transmission for the instructions concerning Unity of Bliss and Emptiness, [53a] a ritual honoring the gurus authored by Paṇchen Lozang Chökyi Gyaltsen, passes from the venerable Mañjughoṣa to Umapa Pawo Dorje, the lord Jampal Nyingpo, Tokden Jampal Gyatso, Baso Chökyi Gyaltsen, Drupchen Chökyi Dorje, Lozang Döndrup, Sangye Yeshe, Lozang Chökyi Gyaltsen, Könchok Gyaltsen, Lozang Yeshe, Zöpa Gyatso, Ngawang Jampa, Yeshe Gyaltsen, Yeshe Tengye, Jamyang Mönlam, Jangtse Lozang Khedrup, and my omniscient and precious guru,546 who conferred it on me. The lineage for the authorization ritual combining the four protectors who are guardians of these teachings passed from Vajradhara to the brahmin Vararuci, Rāhula, the Noble Lord, Dromtön, Chenga, Jayulwa, Mumenpa, Drotön Dutsi Drak, Zhangtön Chökyi Jungne, Sangye Gompa, Chim Namkha Drak, Kyotön Mönlam Tsultrim, Jangchenpa Sönam Pel, Lama Tsulgye, Lachen Sönam Lodrö, Chenga Jinpa Pal, Khenchen Drakdönpa, Ratönpa, the lord Kunga Chokdrup, the lord Drolchok, the lord Kunga Tashi, and Jetsun Tāranātha, after whom it is the same as for the authorization rituals for the Four Deities of the Kadampa tradition, as presented above. The reading transmission for the mantra repetition of the “lone hero” form of Kartarīdhara comes from Khenchen Drakdönpa Pal to Khenchen Sönam Chokdrup, Khenchen Namtse Dengwa, Neten Lhachungpa, the lord Jampa Lhundrup, Jetsun Tāranātha, and so on as in the foregoing case. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 129 3/18/13 3:55 PM 130 The Catalog As for the five-deity mandala for the white form of Jambhala, the transmission came from Avalokiteśvara to Gya Tsöndru Senge, Naktso Tsultrim Gyaltsen, Rongpa Chaksorwa, Putowa, Sharawa, Tumtönpa, Chumikpa Drakpa Gyaltsen, Drotön Dutsi Drak, Zhangtön Chökyi Lodrö, Chim Namkha Drak, Paldingpa, Dulzin Drakpa, Lama Gyagar Gyaltsen, Lama Senge Gyaltsen, Kunkhyen Rongpo, Paṇchen Rinpoche, Drakkar Sempa, the lord Doring Kunga Gyaltsen, and Jetsun Tāranātha, after whom it is the same as for the foregoing lineages. [53b] C. Lamdre In the third case, that of the Lamdre, together with the cycles concerning the spiritual path, the first category is that of the primary sources. The lineage for the reading transmissions of the Vajra Lines, its summary, the verses summarizing the more detailed commentaries, the primary source concerning the inseparability of samsara and nirvana, the Instruction Manual for Jochak, the commentary in verse and its summary by Ngorchen, and the explanation of the Explication for Nyak is the same as for the lineage for the empowerments given below, down to Ngorchen, Muchen, and then from both of them to Gyaltsap Kunwang, then to Könchok Pelwa, Salo Jampai Dorje, and then from both of them to Könchok Lhundrup, then to Ngakchang Kunga Rinchen, Sönam Wangpo, Kunga Sönam, Kunga Tashi, Sönam Rinchen, Kunga Lodrö, Namkha Chime, Dong Lama Tenzin Puntsok, Jampa Kunga Tenzin, and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who bestowed it on me. With respect to the second category, that of the maturing factor of the causal empowerment in the “pith instruction” tradition of Hevajra, the lineage passed from Vajradhara to Nairātmyā, Virūpa, Kāṇha, Ḍāmarupa, Avadhūtipa, Gayadhara, Drokmi Lotsāwa, Setön Kunrik, Zhangtön Chöbar, Sachen Kunga Nyingpo, Sönam Tsemo, Drakpa Gyaltsen, Sakya Paṇchen, Chögyal Pakpa, Könchok Pal, Sönam Pal, Palden Lama Sönam Gyaltsen, Palden Tsultrim, Buddhaśrī, Ngorchen Dorjechang, Muchen Sempa Chenpo, Gyaltsap Kunga Wangchuk, Yongzin Könchok Pelwa, Lhachok Senge, Könchok Lhundrup, Sangye Senge, Namkha Palzang, Sönam Lhundrup, Palchok Gyaltsen, Sangye Puntsok, Sönam Palden, Palden Chökyong, Chökyong Zangpo, Namkha Chime, [54a] Jampa Naljor Jampal Zangpo, and the omniscient Vajradhara Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who in his supreme compassion graciously bestowed it on me. The lineage of the reading transmission for the two texts by Könchok Lhundrup—the sādhana and the Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 130 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 131 mandala ritual—is, from the author onward, the same as for the empowerment, whereas I received the reading transmission for the empowerment ceremony by Jamyang Loter Wangpo from the author himself. In the third category, that of the instructions, the lineage for the Ngor tradition of Lamdre according to the “explanation to the multitude” is as in the foregoing case. The supplication to the lineage and other writings of Ngorchen are also the same as before. The lineage for four sections of teachings, including Clarifying All the Hidden Meaning, passed from Palden Lama Dampa to Zungkyi Palwa, Zangpo Gyaltsen, Sempa Könchok Gyaltsen, Dzongchung Jampa Dorje Gyaltsen, Könchok Pal, Chö Paljor, Jangchup Wangyal, Paṇchen Dewai Dorje, Lhawang Trinle, Tsultrim Tashi, Rinchen Sönam Chokdrup, Jampa Ngawang Lhundrup, Nesarwa Lekpai Jungne, Sachen Kunga Lodrö, Zurchepa Rinchen Gyaltsen, Kunga Tashi, Sakyapa Kunga Gyaltsen, Rinchen Losal Tenkyong, and my precious guru Mañjughoṣa, who graciously bestowed it on me. The lineage of the instructions for the Path Concealed and Explained and Clarifying the Meaning through Symbols is the same as for the 108 Instructions, while the lineage for the reading transmission passed from Dakchen Dorjechang Lodrö Gyaltsen547 to Doring Kunpangpa, Tsarchen Losal Gyatso, Jamyang Khyentse Wangchuk, Lapsum Gyaltsen, Wangchuk Rapten, Sönam Chokden, Sönam Chokdrup, Khyenrap Jampa, Morchen Kunga Lhundrup, Nesarwa Lekpai Jungne, Sachen Kunga Lodrö, [54b] Jampa Namkha Chime, Jampa Kunga Tenzin, and my omniscient guru Vajradhara,548 from whom I received it. The lineage for the reading transmission of the manual of instructions by Taklung Tangpa Rinpoche (according to Pakmo Drupa’s tradition of Lamdre) came from Sachen to Pakmo Drupa, Tangpa Tashi Pal, Kuyal Trulpai Kyechok, Sangye Yarjön, Sangye Ön, Orgyen Gönpo, “the one named Gyalwa,” Ratnākara, “the one named Drakpa,” Miyo Gönpo, Avadhūti, Jikten Wangchuk, Pema Gyalpo, Tsokye Dorje, Kunga Tashi, Ngawang Namgyal, Tashi Paldrup, Drakpa Lekdrup, Damchö Puntsok, Tenzin Namgyal, Drakpa Rinchen Sherap, Tashi Drakpa Gyaltsen, Drakpa Rinchen Lekdrup, Chöying Lhundrup, Ngawang Tenpai Nyima, Pakchok Drakpa Kunsal, Tsetrul Drakpa Yongkhyap, and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, from whom I received it. The lineage for the instructions on the three aspects of purity as the enlightened intent of the explanatory tantra Vajra Pavilion (known as the commentarial tradition of Hevajra, or Lamdre without the source text) is the same as for the 108 Instructions; while the lineage of the reading transInterior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 131 3/18/13 3:55 PM 132 The Catalog mission for the text by Chögyal Pakpa passed from Chögyal Pakpa to Zhang Könchok Pal, Drakpukpa, Jamyang Dönyö Gyaltsen, Lopön Dulwazinpa, Jangchup Senge, Sharchen Yeshe Gyaltsen, Ngorchen Dorjechang, Kunga Wangchuk, Könchok Pelwa, Salo Kunga Sönam, Könchok Lhundrup, Sharkhang Sherap Gyaltsen, Namkha Palzang, Jampa Kunga Tashi, Namkha Sangye, Palchok Gyaltsen, Döndrup Gyaltsen, Khamtön Namkha Palzang, [55a] Sangye Yeshe, Kunga Lodrö, Chö Tashi, Kunga Rapgye, Chö Paljor, Ngawang Drakpa, Kunga Palzang, Kunga Jampal, Ngawang Lekdrup, and my precious omniscient guru, who conferred it on me. The lineage for the instructions of the “eight later cycles of the path” is the same as for the 108 Instructions of the Jonang tradition. The lineage for the reading transmission for the old source texts for the cycle Ensuring the Innate State, by Ḍombipa, passed from Ḍombipa to Āścaryavajra, Vānaprastha, Garbharipa, Piṇḍa, Dūrjayacandra, Vīravajra, Drokmi Śākya Yeshe, Setön Kunrik, Zhangtön Chöbar, Sachen Kunga Nyingpo, Sönam Tsemo, Drakpa Gyaltsen, Sakya Paṇchen, Khaupa Özer Śākya, Laruwa Sönam Senge, Yeshe Gönpo, Baktön Zhönu Tsultrim, Tsultrim Gyaltsen, Palden Tsultrim, Buddhaśrī, Ngorchen, Muchen Könchok Gyaltsen, Zhalupa Sangye Palzang, Mupa Namkha Palzang, Könchok Lhundrup, Namkha Palzang, Kunga Sönam Lhundrup, Khyenrap Tenzin Zangpo, Jampa Ngawang Lhundrup, Morchen Kunga Lhundrup, Nesarwa Lekpai Jungne, and Sachen Kunga Lodrö. An alternate line passed from Ngorchen to Könchok Lodrö, Palden Gyalpo, Zangpo Pal, Namkha Wangchuk, Sheu Lotsāwa Kunga Chödrak, and Khyenrap Tenzang to Kunga Lodrö. From him the lineage passed to Zurchepa Rinchen Gyaltsen, Lopön Kunga Tashi, Jamgön Kunga Gyaltsen, Rinchen Losal Tenkyong, and the omniscient Mañjunātha, from whom I received it. As for the master Padmavajra’s nine profound modes of the stage of completion, the lineage passed from Padmavajra (known also as Saroruha) to Indrabhūti, his sister Lakṣmīnkara, [55b] Kṛṣṇācāryavajra, the brahmin Śrīdhara, the great scholar Gayadhara, and Drokmi Lotsāwa. As for the Complete Path of Caṇḍalī by Kṛṣṇacārya, the lineage passed from Kṛṣṇacārya to Śrīdhara, Gayadhara, and Drokmi Lotsāwa. In the case of the master Ucitāmara’s instructions for “straightening the crooked,” these passed from Ucitāmara to Cāryavajra, Śrīdhara, Gayadhara, and Drokmi. With respect to the texts authored by Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen concerning the exalted Nāgārjuna’s Pith Instructions for Coming to a Decision about Mind and Vāgīśvarakīrti’s Mahāmudrā without Letters, following the author the lineage is as in the preceding cases. Kuddāla’s Stages of the Inconceivable passed from Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 132 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 133 Kuddāla to Bhuṣanapa, Dhamapa, Kahṇapa, Vīravajra, and Drokmi. The direct lineage of the Complete Path of the Mudrā Consort by Indrabhūti was transmitted by Indrabhūti the Elder to his consort Lakṣmīnkara, the great scholar Prajñāgupta, and Drokmi Lotsāwa. (In the foregoing cases, the lineage after Drokmi Lotsāwa is as in the former case). The lineage for the instructions of “spiritual connections with the six gatekeepers” is the same as for the 108 Instructions of the Jonang tradition, while the lineage for the reading transmission of these texts is, from the glorious Lama Dampa Sönam Gyaltsen onward, the same as that in the case of Clarifying the Hidden Meaning. As for the lineage of instructions for Parting from the Four Attachments by the great master Sakyapa,549 this passed from the Lord of Sages to Mañjughoṣa, Sachen Kunga Nyingpo, Sönam Tsemo, Drakpa Gyaltsen, Sakya Paṇḍita, Chögyal Pakpa, Könchok Pal, Drakpukpa, Mönlam Gyaltsen, Palden Tsultrim, Yeshe Gyaltsen, Ngorchen, Könchok Gyaltsen, Sönam Senge, Sangye Rinchen, Namkha Wangchuk, Kunga Lekdrup, Kunga Chödrak, Kunga Namgyal, Tenzin Zangpo, Jampa Ngawang Lhundrup, Morchen, Kunga Lekpai Jungne, Kunga Lodrö, Chime Tenpai Nyima, Dorje Rinchen, Jampa Kunga Tenzin, and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, from whom I received it. [56a] In the case of the manuals of instruction for the foregoing, such as the source verses, the lineages from the respective authors onward were the same as for the main transmission of the instructions. And as for the means for explaining the teachings, authored by Ngawang Lekdrup, these were transmitted from the author himself to my lord guru. The ritual authored by Chöje Kunga Chöpel honoring the gurus of Lamdre was transmitted through the successive throne holders of Ngor to Jampa Naljor Jampal Zangpo and then my lord guru, from whom I received it. The lineage of the authorization ritual for the eight-deity mandala of the guardian of the teachings, Pañjaranātha, passed from Vajradhara to the brahmin Vararuci, Maṇidvīpa, Śraddhākaravarma, Lotsāwa Rinchen Zangpo, Draktengpa Yönten Tsultrim, Mal Lotsāwa, the five early masters of the Sakya school,550 Anyen Dampa, Daknyi Chenpo Zangpo Pal, Gadenpa Kunga Sönam, Ne Rinchen Gyaltsen, Lama Dampa, Paldenpa, Sharchen, Ngorchen, Chumik Dakchen, Paṇchen Rinpoche, Changlungpa, Jetsun Kunga Drolchok, Jamyang Kunga Gyaltsen, and Jetsun Tāranātha, after whom it is the same as for the lineage combining the four protectors from the Kadampa tradition. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 133 3/18/13 3:55 PM 134 The Catalog D. Marpa Kagyu In the fourth case, that of the advice found in the Kagyu tradition of the powerful lord Marpa, to begin with, from among the primary sources there are the more common cycles associated with Mahāmudrā: The lineage for the reading transmission of the glorious tantra Unsullied State passed from Vajradhara to Ratnamati, the great brahmin Saraha, the glorious lord protector Ārya Nāgārjuna, the mahāsiddhā Śavaripa, the powerful lord Maitrīpa, to Marpa Chökyi Lodrö. An alternate lineage passed from Vajradhara to Nairātmya, Nāgārjuna, Tilopa, Nāropa, and Marpa. The lineage then passed to Metön Sönam Gyaltsen, Tsakyapa Śākya Yeshe, Gya Yönten Zangpo, Śākya Dorje of eastern Tibet, Sangye Bum of central Tibet, Lotsāwa Chokden, Lama Palden Senge, Butön Rinchen Drup, and Yungtön Dorje Palwa. From Maitrīpa the lineage also passed to Vajrapāṇi of India, Nakpo Sherde of Ngari, Lama Sotön, Nyangtön Tsakse, Roktön Dewa, Che Yönten, [56b] Che Dode Senge, Chöku Özer, Sangye Bum of central Tibet, Lotsāwa Chokden, Baktön Zhönu Tsultrim, and Gyalwa Yungtönpa. The lineages then continued through Lama Sönam Zangpo, Lama Tsultrim Gönpo, Jangsem Sönam Gyaltsen, Khenchen Sönam Zangpo, Gośrī Paljor Döndrup, the seventh Gyalwang Karmapa Chödrak Gyatso, the mahāsiddha Sangye Nyenpa, the eighth lord Karmapa Mikyö Dorje, Karma Lekshe Drayang, Gelong Dorje Chö, Chetsang Karma Tenkyong, the lord Könchok Tenzin, Jamgön Sungrap Gyatso, the omniscient Tenpai Nyinje, the Gyalwang Karmapa Dudul Dorje, and the glorious Pawo Tsuklak Chökyi Gyatso, who bestowed it on me. As for the Dohā for the People by the Great Brahmin,551 the lineage passed from Sarahapa to Śavaripa, Ngulchu Bairo, the lord Dusum Khyenpa, Rechen Sönam Drakpa, Bomdrakpa Sönam Dorje, Karma Pakṣi, Nyenre Gendun Bum, the lord Rangjung Dorje, and Yungtönpa, after which it is as in the preceding case.552 As for the lineage of Śavaripa’s pith instructions concerning the quintessential meaning, this passed from him to Maitrīpa, Vajrapāṇi of India, Drangti Lodrö Wang, Tsangyang Dakbar, Pukzung Kyap, Tsang Jungser, and Chetön Dode Senge, after which it is the same as for the first lineage. Concerning Tilopa’s Ganges Mahāmudrā, the lineage was transmitted by him to Nāropa, Marpa Lotsāwa, Milarepa, the incomparable Dakpo, Dusum Khyenpa, Drogön Rechen, Bomdrakpa, the mahāsiddhā Pakṣi, Nyenre, Rangjung Dorje, Yungtönpa, Rolpai Dorje, Khachö Wangpo, Dezhin Shekpa, Drung Mase Lodrö Rinchen, Chöpal Yeshe, Lodrö Drakpa, Jatang Lodrö Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 134 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 135 Gyatso, Döndrup Tashi, Lekshe Drayang, [57a] Lodrö Namgyal, Sangye Rinchen, Drung Rinpoche Kunga Namgyal, Garwang Karma Tenkyong, Sönam Gyurme, Könchok Tenzin, Drupgyu Tenpa Namgyal, Sungrap Gyatso, Chökyi Jungne, Gelek Rapgye, Drung Gyurme Tenpel, and Tenzin Gelek Nyima, from whom I received it. As for the venerable Rangjung Dorje’s structural outline and commentary on the foregoing, from the author onward the lineage is as in the case of the source itself. The lineage for Nāropa’s Concise Words on Mahāmudrā passed from him to Marpa Lotsāwa and so on as in the previous cases. As for the short, easy-to-understand commentary on the foregoing, I received the transmission from the author himself. As for Maitrīpa’s Ten Stanzas on Suchness, from Maitrīpa onward the lineage is as in the foregoing case of the tantra Unsullied State; alternatively, there is a lineage from Maitrīpa to the siddhā Tepupa, Rechung Dorje Drakpa, Burgom Nakpo, Pakmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo, Gyalo Pukpa, Serlingpa Zhönu Drup, and the omniscient Chöku Özer, after whom it is as in the aforementioned case. The lineage for the source verses of Marpa’s song “Creating No Concepts” passed from him to Milarepa and so on; while the Mahāmudrā text Shedding Light on Timeless Awareness, authored by the venerable Milarepa, was transmitted by him to Dakpo Rinpoche and so on. And the Mahāmudrā text Single Sufficient Path, authored by the venerable Gampopa, was transmitted by him to Dusum Khyenpa and so on as in the preceding cases. Regarding the uncommon cycles associated with the Six Dharmas: The lineage for the reading transmission of Standards for Authentic Teachings passed from Vajradhara to the ḍākinī of timeless awareness, Vajrapāṇi, Tilopa, Nāropa, Marpa, Milarepa, Rechungpa, and from him to both Gyalwa Lo and Sumpa Repa, as well as Burgom. It was from the latter that Pakmo Drupa received the lineage and passed it in turn to Lingje Repa, who also received it from both Gyalwa Lo and Sumpa Repa. Lingje Repa then transmitted the lineage to Tsangpa Gyare, who then passed it to Önre Dharma Senge, Zhönu Senge, and Nyima Senge, and Ön Dorje Lingpa received it from the preceding two (who were uncle and nephew). He then passed it to Pökyawa Senge Rinchen, [57b] Senge Gyalpo, Kunga Senge, Dorje Rinchen, Lodrö Senge, Sherap Senge, Yeshe Rinchen, Namkha Palzang, Sherap Zangpo, Chöje Kunga Paljor, Ngawang Chökyi Gyalpo, and Jamyang Chökyi Drakpa, from whom both Avadhūtipa and Ngagi Wangchuk Drakpa Gyaltsen received the transmission. They both then passed it to the omniscient Pema Karpo, who in turn conferred it on Lhatse Ngawang Zangpo, Paksam Wangpo, Yongzin Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 135 3/18/13 3:55 PM 136 The Catalog Kunga Lhundrup, Chökyi Wangchuk, Gelek Zhepa, Jamgön Gyepa, Jampal Pawo, the all-seeing Chökyi Nangwa, the Gyalwang Karmapa Tekchok Dorje, and the omniscient Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who bestowed it on me. In the case of the Vajra Verses of the Oral Lineage, the lineage passed from Vajradhara to the ḍākinī of timeless awareness, Tilopa, and so on as previously. As for the two primers (longer and shorter) on the Six Dharmas, Tilopa’s pith instructions on the Six Dharmas, Nāropa’s vajra song on the Six Dharmas, and Lord Milarepa’s Three Cycles Clarifying the Oral Lineage, the lineages are as in the preceding case of Ganges Mahāmudrā. The second category of texts in this tradition contains developmental instructions of two kinds: empowerments as the causal factor that brings spiritual maturation and the main sources of instructions (both primary and secondary) that bring liberation. Of the first kind, there are three versions of the primary cycles of the oral lineage: the extensive, the intermediate, and the concise. 1. In the extensive version, the Rechung Nyengyu (Oral Lineage of Rechungpa), the lineages for the following teachings—the short source by Tilopa, the more common manual Wish-Fulfilling Gem, the Six Dharmas (which bring total liberation through the “upper gateway”), the physical exercises for the path of skillful means, the “lower gateway to supreme bliss,” Supreme Bliss: Luminous Pure Awareness, and the Mahāmudrā text Shedding Light on Timeless Awareness—passed from Vajradhara to the ḍākinī of timeless awareness, Tilopa, Nāropa, Marpa, Milarepa, Rechungpa, Khyung Tsangpa, and to the latter’s three heart children Martön Tsultrim Jungne, Lopön Targom, and Machik Angjo (known as the three accomplished heart children). [58a] From these three the lineage passed to Zhang Lotsāwa, Drogön Dharaśrī, Jangsem Sönam Gyaltsen, Machik Kunden Rema, Khetsun Ziji Gyaltsen, Wangchuk Sherap, Ritröpa Zhönu Gyaltsen, Rechen Denchikpa, Tsenden Chipa, Dulzin Ngagi Wangpo, Sherap Jampa Sangye Senge, Tsangnyön Chökyi Senge, Götsang Rechen, and from him to the three known as the three with the title Rapjam: Nepa Rapjampa Jampa Puntsok, Rapjam Karma Tashi, and Rapjam Sangye Özer. The omniscient Drupchok Wangpo then received the transmission from all three of them and passed it on to Trinle Gyatso, Kagyu Drönme, Yönten Gyatso, Chöje Lingpa, Wangpo, Yeshe Kalzang, Palden Gyatso, Geupa Ngedön Tenzin Chökyi Gyatso, Tutop Gyatso, Kharakpa Rinchen Özer, Geu Kagyu Trinle Wangchuk, and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who bestowed it on me. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 136 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 137 The specific lineage for the Four Letters of Mahāmudrā passed from Vajradhara to Vajragarbha, Tilopa, Nāropa, Marpa, Milarepa, Dakpo Rinpoche, Pakmo Drupa, Lingje Repa, Tsangpa Gyare, Götsangpa, Yangönpa, Chenga Rinchenden, Zurpukpa Chöje, Ritrö Rechen, Mengom Özer Senge, Lachipa Namkha Gyaltsen, Dulzin Ngagi Wangpo, Taklung Ngawang Drakpa, and Shar Rapjampa, after whom it is as in the preceding case. 2. As for the intermediate-length cycle, the Ngamzong Nyengyu (Oral Lineage of Ngamzong), the lineage for the primary source, Three Cycles of Tseringma, passed from Repa Bodhiradza to Gungtang Repa, Yakpuwa, and so on through successive generations as a core tradition of the oral lineage. 3. As for the Mahāmudrā text Shedding Light on Timeless Awareness and the source text of the shorter-length cycle, the Dakpo Nyengyu (Oral Lineage of Dakpo), the lineage for these texts is as discussed previously in the case of Milarepa’s source text on Mahāmudrā and other texts. [58b] The lineage for the reading transmission of the sources for the “nine cycles of the disembodied ḍākinī” is as in the preceding case, while that for the actual instruction in these is the same as for the Rechung Nyengyu. As for the Four Scrolls of Heard Instructions, the lineage was transmitted as a main part of the Zurmang Nyengyu (Oral Lineage of Zurmang), so that the two scrolls on the yogic practices of subtle channels and energies and the transference of consciousness were conferred by Nāropa on Marpa, while the two on Mahāmudrā and the intermediate state were bestowed on Marpa by Maitrīpa. Marpa then transmitted them all to Tsurtön Wangde, Shengom Gomchung, Dakpo Dotse, Lopön Nyima Lungpa, Deshek Rinpoche Toktse Gangpa, the omniscient Chöje Kunga Döndrup of Nyedo, and Yungtön Dorje Pal, after whom it is the same as for the oral lineage. The second set of texts consists of the cycles of instructions that derive from the individual schools within the Dakpo Kagyu. In the case of the primary tradition of the seat of Dakpo, the lineages for the instructions in the Six Dharmas and Mahāmudrā, as well as the other manuals of instruction, were transmitted as follows: • in the case of the lineage of Mahāmudrā, from Vajradhara to Vajrayoginī, the bodhisattva *Sukhanātha, Saraha, Nāgārjuna, and Śavaripa; • in the case of the lineage of development stage and the yoga of illusory body, from Nāgārjuna to Āryadeva, Candrakīrti, and Mataṅgipa; • in the case of the lineage of the path of skillful means, from Lūipa to Ḍeṅgipa, Dharikapa, and Sukhadhari; Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 137 3/18/13 3:55 PM 138 The Catalog • in the case of the lineage of the yogas of dream and utter lucidity, from Ḍombipa to Vīnasa, Lavapa, and Indrabhūti; • in the case of the lineage of the yogas of the intermediate state and the transference of consciousness, from the yogi Sukhapa to Tanglopa, Shinglopa, and Karṇaripa; • in the case of the combined personal transmissions of all of the above, from Tilopa to Nāropa, Avadhūtipa, Marpa, Milarepa, Gampo Lhaje, Öngom Tsultrim Nyingpo, Layakpa Jangchup Ngödrup, Khenchen Jekarwa, Nyigom Chenpo, Drigung Lingpa and his brother, Palden Lhalungpa, Khenchen Lhatsunpa, Jose Dorje Lodrö, Chenga Chökyi Gyaltsen, Chökyi Senge, Chökyi Wangchuk, Khenchen Gyaltsen Zangpo, Chenga Sönam Gyaltsen, the lord Sönam Lhundrup, Paṇchen Tashi Namgyal, Chenga Sönam Gyaltsenchen, Norbu Gyenpa, [59a] Chenga Rinchen Dorje, Zangpo Dorje, Lhundrup Ngedön Wangpo, Drupchen Damchö Wangchuk, Tenpa Dargye, Drupwang Jangchup Dorje, Jangsem Kunga Nyingpo, Gyalse Zhenpen Taye, and Vajradhara Khyentse Wangpo, who graciously bestowed it on me. With respect to the concise summary of Dakpo Rinpoche’s four axioms, the lineage is as in the preceding case. As for both the instruction on mind entitled Wish-Fulfilling Gem and the transference of consciousness known as “the ultimate state of entering the city,” the lineages passed from the venerable Gampopa to Kyebu Yeshe Dorje, who concealed the texts as termas, later revealed by Drogön Dungtso Repa, who conferred them on Neu Jadralwa Dorje Dzepa and others. The lineages were transmitted through successive generations, codified as a section of teachings in the oral lineage by the mahāsiddhā Lodrö Rinchen, following which the lineages were the same as for the mainstream oral lineage. In the case of the tradition of the Tsalpa Kagyu, lord protectors of beings, the lineage for both Zhang Tsalpa’s Consummate Sublime Path of Mahāmudrā and the Mahāmudrā text entitled Great Wrathful Goddess passed from Vajradhara to the ḍākinī of timeless awareness, the six primary gurus, Zhang Tsöndru Drakpa, the incomparable Śākya Yeshe, Tsenkhangpa Sangye Zhönu, Kunga Gyaltsen, the lord Drakpa Zangpo, Śākya Sönam, Dharmapāla, Palden Gyaltsen, Drakpa Sönam, Gendun Palden, Drakpa Gyatso, Ngawang Gyatso, Sönam Gyaltsen, Kalden Gyatso, Chöying Rangdrol, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, Pema Trinle, Kunga Sönam, Tupten Dargye, Gyurme Chöpel, Lozang Jungne, Drakpa Khedrup, Kalzang Khedrup, Chuzang Lama, Geshe Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 138 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 139 Yeshe Gongpel, and my omniscient guru, the venerable Mañjughoṣa, by whose grace I received it. As for the fifth Zhamar’s notes summarizing the meaning of the “sealed” teachings, the lineage passed from Könchok Yenlak, Wangchuk Dorje, Chökyi Wangchuk, Karma Nyima, [59b] Karma Trinle, Dönyö Nyingpo, Chökyi Döndrup, Chökyi Jungne, Dudul Dorje, and Pema Nyinje Wangpo, from whom I received it. From the cycles of instructions found in the Kaṃtsang Kagyu lineage of accomplishment, for the victorious one Rangjung Dorje’s works—that is, the instruction manual on Merging with the Innate State of Mahāmudrā, the themes for understanding the Six Dharmas, and Molten Gold: Six Dharmas— the lineage from the author onward is the same as for the Mahāmudrā lineage described below, down to the fourteenth Gyalwang Karmapa Tekchok Dorje, who graciously bestowed it on me. The Mahāmudrā lineage of “merging with the innate state” passed from Vajradhara to Ratnamati, Sarahapa, Ārya Nāgārjuna, Śavaripa, Maitrīpa, Marpa of Lhodrak, the venerable Milarepa, the king of dharma Dakpo Lhaje, Dusum Khyenpa, Drogön Rechen, Bomdrakpa, Karma Pakṣi, the learned and accomplished Orgyenpa, Rangjung Dorje, Yungtön Dorje Pal, the lord Karmapa Rolpai Dorje, Khachö Wangpo, Dezhin Shekpa, Ratnabhadra, Tongwa Dönden, Jampal Zangpo, Chödrak Gyatso, Sangye Nyenpa, Mikyö Dorje, Könchok Yenlak, Wangchuk Dorje, Chökyi Wangchuk, Chöying Dorje, Yeshe Nyingpo, Yeshe Dorje, Chökyi Döndrup, Jangchup Dorje, Chökyi Jungne, Dudul Dorje, and Chödrup Gyatso. Vajradhara Pema Nyinje Wangpo received it from the latter two and then graciously bestowed it on me. Alternatively, both the fourteenth Gyalwang Karmapa and Karma Tekchok Tenpel received the transmission from Pema Nyinje Wangpo, and then they both conferred it on me; and in addition, from the thirteenth lord Karmapa it passed to the fourth Chakme, Karma Tenzin Trinle, through whose kindness I received it. The lineage for the reading transmission of the instruction manual Pointing Out Dharmakāya and the liturgies for the preliminary practices is as in the preceding case. As for the concise and essential instruction on the deity for Vajrayoginī, the lineage passed from the author553 [60a] to the Gyalwang Karmapa Wangchuk Dorje, Karma Döntok, Karma Palzang, Karma Kunkhyen, Chökyi Jungne, the thirteenth lord Karmapa, Pema Nyinje Wangpo, and Karma Ngedön Tenpa Rapgye, from whom I received it. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 139 3/18/13 3:55 PM 140 The Catalog The lineage for the notes on the outer sādhana authored by Tsuklak Gyatso passed from the author himself to Chökyi Wangchuk, Drakpa Chokyang, Karma Tsoknyi, Karma Tenzin Namgyal, and Karma Kunkhyen, after whom it is as in the preceding case. In the case of Nonduality of Subtle Energy and Mind, 554 authored by Rangjung Dorje, the lineage is the same as for the instruction manuals for Mahāmudrā, down to the fourteenth lord Karmapa Tekchok Dorje, through whose grace I received it. As for the instruction manual for the preceding source, authored by Tsewang Kunkhyap, from the author the lineage passed to Choktrul Karma Ratna, Ringul Tulku Karma Chögyal, Karma Ngedön Palzang, and my lord guru Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, from whom I received it. As for the lineage of instruction in the Six Dharmas of Nāropa, the extensive lineage includes those of the “four commands,” while the more direct lineage passed from Vajradhara to Vajrayoginī, Tilopa Prajñābhadra, Nāropa Jñānasiddhi, Marpa Chökyi Lodrö, and the venerable Milarepa, after whom it is the same as for the foregoing Mahāmudrā lineage. The lineage for the reading transmission of Distilled Nectar, a manual of instructions for the Six Dharmas, passed from the author, Garwang Chökyi Wangchuk, to the tenth lord Karmapa Chöying Dorje, following whom there is no difference from the preceding case. With respect to the lineage of instruction and reading transmission for Direct Introduction to the Three Kāyas, a special teaching of the Karmapas, this began with the Karmapa Chökyi Lama, who passed it to the learned and accomplished Orgyenpa, after whom it is as in the former cases. It was through the kindness of the fourteenth Gyalwang Karmapa that I received it. (As for the manual of further instructions on Direct Introduction to the Three Kāyas, authored by this same lord, the lineage passed from the author himself to Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and then to me.) The lineage for the reading transmission of Nāropa’s Five Nails to Dispel Hindrances is as in the former cases of the longer and shorter primers. As for the Four-Session Guru Yoga, from the eighth lord Mikyö Dorje onward it is the same as for the “golden garland” of the Kaṃtsang school, down to Pema Nyinje Wangpo [60b] and Karma Tekchok Tenpel, from whom I received it. In the case of the stages of visualization for the foregoing and the notes on the Short Supplication to Vajradhara, the lineage for the reading transmissions passed from the author Karma Chakme to Tsöndru Gyatso, Pema Döndrup, Pema Lhundrup, Dechen Nyingpo, and Kaṃ Karma Norbu, from whom I received it. Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 140 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 141 From the Zurmang Kagyu tradition, the lineage for the instruction manual on Mahāmudrā authored by Drung Mase passed from Drung Mase Lodrö Rinchen to Tokden Chöpal Yeshe, after whom it is similar to the case of the longer and shorter primers. From the Nedo Kagyu tradition, the lineage for its quintessential practice—the definitive instruction on the Bulu method for Mahākaruṇika— passed from Karma Chakme to Pema Kunga, Trinle Wangjung, Sherap Drakpa, Tenzin Döndrup, and Jeön Samten Choktrul Rinpoche Karma Tekchok Tenpel, by whose grace I received it. From the primary teaching cycles of the Padru Kagyu tradition, the lineage for the reading transmission of the advice on Mahāmudrā authored by Drogön Pakmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo passed in succession from him to the siddhā Lingje Repa, Tsangpa Gyare, Gyalwa Götsangpa, Chenga Rinchen Denpa, Zurpukpa, Yakpukpa, Tangchungwa Śākya Senge, Khön Jose, Jadral Namkha Ö, Khetsunpa, Dorje Dzinpa, Rinchen Zhönu, and Chenga Sönam Gyaltsen. Then my lord guru Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo received it from a virtuous lama,555 after which I received it in turn from him. From among the cycles associated with the “four pairs,” that is, the eight secondary schools: The lineage for the instructions in the Five Principles of Mahāmudrā, the special teaching of the Drigung school, lord protectors of beings, passed from Vajradhara to Tilopa, Nāropa, Marpa, Milarepa, Dakpo Lhaje, Pakmo Drupa, Drigung Rinchen Pal, Tsultrim Dorje, Sönam Drakpa, Chenga Drakpa Jungne, Chung Dorje Drakpa, Rinchen Senge, Drakpa Senge, Dorje Rinchen, Dorje Gyalpo, Dzamling Chögyal, Döndrup Gyalpo, Rinchen Palgyi Gyaltsen, Rinchen Palzang, [61a] Rinchen Chögyal, Kunga Rinchen, Rinchen Puntsok, Sönam Palgyi Gyatso, Chögyal Puntsok, Tashi Puntsok, Könchok Rinchen, Chökyi Drakpa, Könchok Trinle Namgyal, Könchok Trinle Zangpo, Döndrup Chögyal, Tenzin Drodul, Chökyi Gyaltsen of To, Tenzin Chökyi Nyima, and Pema Nyinje Wangpo, by whose grace I received it. Alternatively, from Könchok Trinle Namgyal the lineage passed to Karma Chakme, after which it was transmitted in the succession of the “golden garland” of the Nedo Kagyu; it was then bestowed on me, together with that of the manuals of background teaching for the definitive instruction on Mahākaruṇika, by the venerable Choktrul Tenzin Trinle. As for the lineage of the single reading transmission for the fifth Zhamar’s instruction manual, this passed from Könchok Bang556 to Wangchuk Dorje, Chökyi Wangchuk, Karma Sungrap, Karma Dorje, Karma Trinle Wangpo, Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 141 3/18/13 3:55 PM 142 The Catalog Jamgön Tenpai Nyinje, Dudul Dorje, and Vajradhara Pema Nyinje Wangpo, from whom I received it. In the case of the verses on the Five Principles of Mahāmudrā authored by lord Dharmākara, the lineage passed from the author himself to Dudul Dorje, and Pema Nyinje Wangpo, from whom I received it. Before Tenzin Chökyi Nyima, the lineage of the torma empowerment for the Five Principles of Mahāmudrā is the same as for the lineage for the instructions in the Five Principles of Mahāmudrā; after him it passed to Tenzin Padmai Gyaltsen, Gar Könchok Tenzin, Chönyi Norbu, and Rikzin Könchok Tenzin, who passed it on to me. This school’s lineage for the Six Dharmas is, before Drigung Kyopa, as in the general case, after which it passed to Ön Sönam Drakpa, Chung Dorje Drakpa, Tokhapa Rinchen Senge, Tsamchepa Drakpa Sönam, Chunyipa Dorje Rinchen, Nyergyepa Dorje Gyalpo, Nyernyipa Chökyi Gyalpo, Döndrup Gyalpo, Namkha Gyaltsen, Ngawang Gyaltsen, Ngawang Drakpa, Rinchen Chögyal, Kunga Rinchen, Rinchen Puntsok, Palgyi Gyatso, Chögyal Puntsok, [61b] Namjom Puntsok, Chökyi Drakpa, and then to Chökyi Nyima, as in the case of the lineage of the Five Principles. It then passed to Tenzin Pemai Gyaltsen, Ngawang Tenpai Nyima, the venerable Jamgön Khyentse Wangpo, and then to me. The general lineage for the completion stage for the four aspects of the unsurpassable innate state is also as in the preceding case. The lineage of experientially based instruction for Mahāmudrā—merging with the innate state—in the tradition of the glorious Taklungpa Tangpa Chenpo is, according to the successive line of holders of the seat of Martang, as follows: from Vajradhara to Ratnamati, Sukhasiddhi,557 Sarahapa, Nāgārjuna, Śavaripa, Maitrīpa, to the sublime being Marpa (alternatively, it passed from Vajradhara to Tilopa, Nāropa, and Marpa), and then to Milarepa, Dakpo Lhaje, Pakmo Drupa, Taklung Tangpa, Kuyalwa, Sangye Yarjön, Sangye Ön, Tashi Lama, Sangye Palzang, Ratna Guru, Ratnākara, Namkha Jamyang, Tashi Paltsek, Jangchup Gyatso, Ngawang Drakpa, Namgyal Drakpa, Namgyal Tashi, Namgyal Palzang, Ngawang Namgyal, Tashi Paldrup, Drakpa Lekdrup, Jampal Gyatso, Trinle Tenzin, Trinle Chokdrup, and from both of them to Drakpa Rinchen Sherap. From the latter two it then passed to Tashi Drakpa Gyaltsen, Drakpa Rinchen Lekdrup, Chöying Lhundrup, Ngawang Tenpai Nyima, and the omniscient Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who passed it on to me. According to the shorter “golden garland” of the Martang lineage, before Sangye Ön it is as previously, but after him the transmission passed to the lord Orgyen Gönpo, Gyalwai Lodrö, Interior_DNZ_Catalog_12_03_13.indd 142 3/18/13 3:55 PM Lineage Successions 143 Ratnākara, Drakpa Gyaltsen, Miyo Gönpo, Pakchok Jikten Wangchuk, Pema Gyalpo, Tsokye Dorje, Kunga Tashi, Ngawang Namgyal, and after him as in the preceding case. [62a] Especially in the case of the lineage of words, this passed from Sangye Ön Drakpa Özer to Kunga Pal, Orgyen Gönpo, Yönten Gyaltsen, Yönten Özer, Lodrö Rinchen, Döndrup Rinchen, Chöpal Zangpo, Khardrung Sönam Tashi, and Tsokye Dorje, after whom it is as in the former case. In the lineage of this Taklung Kagyu tradition, it is held that the lineages that derived from the Densa Kagyu,558 Karma Kaṃtsang, Drigung, and Drukpa are included, so that it is considered to constitute a fivefold line of personal transmission. As for this tradition’s lineage of instr